Acs Sept 2008 Leadership Prm Linked In Edited Version


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Presentation to the Australian Computer Society in September 2008.

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Acs Sept 2008 Leadership Prm Linked In Edited Version

  1. 1. ACS Queensland (SPIN ASMA SIG) Leadership of Integrated Virtual Teams David Tuffley Software Quality Institute School of Information & Communication Technology September 2008
  2. 3. Leadership & Management <ul><li>What in common? The ability to get things done </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference? Managers coordinate resources, evolve processes in line with org objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Management is always present in large organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership present in all organisations, not just commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Leader takes care of people and emphasises in his/her activities the social psychology of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Takala, T., (1998). Plato on Leadership . Journal of Business Ethics 17: pp 785-798. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Leadership? <ul><li>Leadership studied for countless generations, yet no consensus on what true leadership is </li></ul><ul><li>Almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept </li></ul><ul><li>Can it be learned? Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Bennis, W. and Nanus, B., (1985). Leaders: the strategies for taking charge . New York, Haper and Row. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Leadership in technology development Complex Team Leadership Factors Generic Leadership Factors Virtual Team Leadership Factors
  5. 7. Generic Leadership qualities (1of 3) <ul><li>Communicate shared vision to create optimism. Ability to communicate this shared vision to create optimism in members. This communication can take many forms in day-to-day practice but conveys an expectation of high standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Display Integrity/good character . Ability to act with integrity and honesty, to act consistently over time in pursuit of the shared vision, regardless of set-backs.. </li></ul><ul><li>Create Trust. Ability to generate and sustain trust. An aspect of charisma. </li></ul><ul><li>Action-oriented. Inclined towards action, risk-taking, curiosity. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Generic Leadership qualities (2 of 3) <ul><li>Accepts responsibility. Accepts ultimate responsibility for events even if others appear blameworthy. Requires the courage to accept the truth/reality of a situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized consideration . Deep concern for the well-being of individual members. </li></ul><ul><li>Original thinking. Stimulates members to think in original ways, emphasizing the triumph of reason over irrationality, and challenging established ways of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience. Ability to maintain an enthusiasm for goal realisation, regardless of set-backs. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Generic Leadership qualities (3 of 3) <ul><li>Conceptual ability. Ability to conceptualise abstractly in broad sense. In more narrow sense, has ability to understand technical issues at least at the conceptual level. </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy. Ability to empathise, to see the world through member’s eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement. Ability to exercise good judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Self-worth & competence . Ability to make members feel valued, competent and effective in their role, so to avoid feelings of frustration, disillusionment, anger and betrayal. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards desirable performance. Team behaviour that works towards realization of goal (shared vision) is rewarded. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Integrated team leadership is about … Integrated Team Leadership Factors Generic Leadership Factors Virtual Team Leadership Factors
  9. 12. Integrated team leadership (1 of 3) <ul><li>Establish the project's work environment by creating an environment in which all virtual team members use (preferably broadband) two-way communications media. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the project’s shared vision by understanding and communicating to team members the mission, goals, expectations and constraints of the project in a way that creates a sense of common purpose and enthusiasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish the integrated team structure by considering the nature and scope of the project to arrive at an appropriate team structure (dynamic, adaptable to emergent circumstances). </li></ul>
  10. 13. Integrated team leadership (2 of 3) <ul><li>Allocate requirements to integrated teams by assigning requirements, responsibilities, tasks, and interfaces to teams in the integrated team structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish integrated teams within the larger team structure (team leaders and members assigned, team charter established, resources allocated). </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure collaboration among interfacing teams by creating an environment of collaboration, informed by the shared vision, facilitated by communications technology and brought together by the leader with the help of interface control working groups. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Integrated team leadership (3 of 3) <ul><li>Establish empowerment mechanisms that allow team leaders and members to recognise clear channels of responsibility and authority. These mechanisms shall avoid situations where people assume too much or too little authority and when it is unclear who should make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rules and guidelines for integrated teams by maintaining a clearly defined set of criteria for structuring and forming integrated teams. These define how teams interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance team and home organization responsibilities by having clear guidelines for how members can balance their team and home organization responsibilities. A “home organization” is the part to which team members are assigned when they are not on an integrated team. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Virtual team leadership (1 of 3) Integrated Team Leadership Factors Generic Leadership Factors Virtual Team Leadership Factors
  13. 17. Virtual team leadership is about … <ul><li>Recruiting the right people/expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Suitably skilled people </li></ul><ul><li>Complex projects may require an integrated team with which to achieve the project objectives </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Synchronous, information-rich channels of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Technological mediation is provided for all projects </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum required for simple projects is audio-only synchronous communications such as telephone, and asynchronous communications such as email </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum required for complex projects is the aforementioned plus synchronous, richly-textured communications such as videoconferencing </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Devolve authority to team </li></ul><ul><li>Leader devolves leadership functions by creating technologically-mediated structures and routines that produce self-managing teams </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>Perform complex tasks in real-time </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous, reciprocal workflow arrangements is optimum, particularly for complex tasks performed by virtual teams </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined, fixed and singular team roles is optimum for complex tasks performed by virtual teams. </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>Being clear about roles and boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined team boundaries are optimum, particularly for complex tasks performed by virtual teams </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Performance management functions to compensate for temporal distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit performance management functions </li></ul><ul><li>These allow team members to manage their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate problems and provide clear guidance on how to adapt to changing environmental conditions </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>Team development practices </li></ul><ul><li>ICT is used to facilitate team development activities </li></ul><ul><li>Team coherence is enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Stable team membership </li></ul><ul><li>Stable team membership is optimum, particularly for complex tasks performed by virtual teams. </li></ul>
  20. 24. <ul><li>Self regulation practices across multiple boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation functions adapted for use across diverse boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual factors are carefully considered with performance management </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant factors (i.e. cultural differences) are identified and applied </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>Unique team culture where team spans multiple boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Where virtual teams are across multiple boundaries (functional, organization, and/or cultural), an adaptive “third” culture is established based on mutual respect, trust and reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Team cohesion is enhanced by a sense of interconnectedness and mutual-dependency. </li></ul>
  22. 26. <ul><li>Operating procedures to allow members to regulate their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>For discrete lifecycle projects, effective self-management functions (goals, structures, norms) are established early in the project lifecycle to overcome non-productive inertia </li></ul><ul><li>In continuous projects, self-management functions are established early also, yet given the on-going nature of such projects, the timing may be less critical than with discrete lifecycle projects </li></ul>
  23. 27. <ul><li>Effective team development functions early </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term or discrete lifecycle projects have the critical team development issues settled and implemented early to facilitate timely completion of project </li></ul><ul><li>Longer-term or continuous projects have the critical team development issues settled and implemented early to facilitate the establishment of stable, long-term working relationships and complex workflow arrangements </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Manage role ambiguity where members have more than one role </li></ul><ul><li>Member roles are clearly understood when complex virtual teams have individual members who hold multiple roles </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency plans exist for when a member is obliged to work on another team </li></ul><ul><li>Time commitment to a particular team is clearly understood by each member </li></ul>
  25. 29. <ul><li>Effective team development functions where members hold multiple roles </li></ul><ul><li>In complex projects where members hold multiple roles, those individual roles are clearly defined and understood </li></ul><ul><li>In complex projects where members hold multiple roles, those role networks are clearly defined and understood by the members </li></ul><ul><li>Where possible members with multiple roles have their role simplified/reduced to a single role in order to remove ambiguity and role conflict </li></ul>
  26. 30. And finally, knowing something by knowing what it is not …
  27. 31. Death march projects (what to avoid) <ul><li>Ed Yourdon cites these reasons for death march projects: </li></ul><ul><li>Politics, politics, politics </li></ul><ul><li>Naïve and/or devious promises made by marketing, senior executive, inexperienced project managers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Naïve optimism of youth: “Can do it over the weekend&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;startup&quot; mentality of fledgling entrepreneurial companies </li></ul>
  28. 32. Death march projects <ul><li>The “SAS&quot; mentality: Real programmers don't need sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Intense competition caused by globalization of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Intense competition caused by the appearance of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure caused by unexpected government regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpected and/or unplanned crises eg., your hardware/software vendor just went bankrupt, or your three best programmers just died of bubonic plague </li></ul>
  29. 33. A Process Reference Model (PRM) <ul><li>The three categories of leadership factors have been integrated into a Process Reference Model for leadership using the requirements specified in ISO/IEC 15504-2:2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with existing PRMs (CMMI etc) </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Create a Shared Vision (sample) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : to perceive a guiding principle/idea that captures the imagination of members to create a shared vision and inspire them to realize that vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes: as a result of the successful implementation of creating a shared vision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader perceives and formulates a unified vision of what is to be accomplished, ideally seen as an accomplished fact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader develops a strong commitment to the achievement of that vision, based on a sense of rightness and timeliness, such that they have sufficient resilience to overcome goal frustrating events. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader develops a clear and unambiguous set of objectives or goals that are concrete and achievable. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. 1.15 Management-by-exception (passive) 1.14 Rewards desirable performance 1.13 Self-worth & competence 1.12 Judgment 1.11 Empathy 1.10 Conceptual ability 1.9 Resilience 1.8 Original thinking 1.7 Individualized consideration 1.6 Accepts responsibility 1.5 Action-oriented 1.4 Create trust 1.3 Display integrity/good character and competence 1.2 Communicate shared vision to create optimism 1.1 Create a shared vision 1. Generic Leadership Personality Factors (V0.1 PRM)
  32. 36. 2.9 Balance team and home organization responsibilities 2.8 Establish rules and guidelines for integrated teams 2.7 Establish empowerment mechanisms 2.6 Ensure collaboration among interfacing teams 2.5 Establish integrated teams 2.4 Allocate requirements to integrated teams 2.3 Establish the integrated team structure 2.2 Establish the project’s shared vision 2.1 Establish the project's work environment 2. Integrated Team Leadership Factors (V0.1 PRM)
  33. 37. 3.15 Establish effective team development functions where members hold multiple roles 3.14 Manage role ambiguity and conflict where members hold multiple roles 3.13 Establish effective team development functions in discrete lifecycle projects 3.12 Establish operating procedures to allow members to regulate their own performance 3.11 Establish unique team culture where team spans multiple boundaries 3.10 Establish effective self-regulation functions across multiple boundaries 3.9 Establish team development practices in response to real-time requirement 3.8 Establish performance management functions to compensate for temporal distribution 3.7 Define roles and perform tasks synchronously 3.5 Establish and maintain stable team membership 3.5 Manage team boundaries 3.4 Perform complex tasks in real-time 3.3 Devolve leadership functions to team 3.2 Provide synchronous, information-rich channels of communication 3.1 Recruit required expertise for virtual team 3. Virtual Team Leadership Factors (V0.1 PRM)
  34. 38. Preliminary Results - 1 <ul><li>Between five and eight data collection iterations with organizations operating multi-disciplinary virtual teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Persons performing leadership/ management of virtual integrated teams is interviewed to determine the existence of objective evidence to validate the PRM. </li></ul><ul><li>If the purpose/outcome statements of the PRM can be linked to work-products and activities then this will serve to validate the PRM and form the basis of a Process Assessment Model in keeping with ISO/IEC 15504-2:2004 </li></ul>
  35. 39. Preliminary Results - 2 <ul><li>To date, four data collection sessions have been performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants are high-profile multi-national IT companies performing IT projects involving integrated virtual teams. </li></ul><ul><li>The managers interviewed expressed their approval of the leadership model in terms of its scope, content, aims, and approach . </li></ul><ul><li>A high degree of consistency is observed in the data, </li></ul><ul><li>V0.1 PRM has been consolidated to become V0.2 </li></ul>
  36. 40. Benefits of using the Model <ul><li>Develop a comprehensive understanding of the leadership factors, </li></ul><ul><li>Develop practical examples of the processes, and </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying process improvement opportunities </li></ul>
  37. 41. Questions? <ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>SQI: </li></ul><ul><li>Download presentation: h ttp:// Sept 2008 Leadership PRM.pdf </li></ul>Participation in Project welcomed