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A brief note on management thinkers

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  1. 1. Management thinkers &business giants notes : divided into 2 parts 1) Mgt. Thinkers 2) Business Giants Management Thinkers who are covered under this category 1)Meridith Belbin 2)WarrenBennis 3)Kenneth Blanchard 4) dale Carnegie 5) AlfredDChandler,Jr. 6)Stephen R covey 7)Edwards Deming8) Peter Drucker 9) MaryParkerFollet 10)Ghoshal& Bartlett 11) Frank & LilianGilbreth12) Charles Handy13)Frederick Herzberg 14)Joseph Mjuran Their contributions: 1)Team Working as a means of worker flexibility & cooperation ; cultural shifts in an organization, problem solving & project management, & tapping talents of every one.Belbin model of Team Management system is well known.He concentrated on team managers rather than types of teams.why some teams succeed & some fail? The essence of his theory is success depends on the abilities & characteristics individual team members .Based on this success Or failure can be predicted .causes of failures can be analysed& corrected .Another important factor is behavior characteristics ,understanding of roles ,when & how to let other member to take over & compensate for short comings.He has grouped roles into *8 categories.They are not needed at the same time ORinthe same measure "People and plans are critical to strategy, they are both sides of the same coin. One without the other is only half the answer", says Glen Ford, Partner with HobsonFord. New to Belbin Team Roles and what to find out how you can use the theory and reports to bring about tangible improvements in business performance? Book yourself on our "How to..." session! A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them. Dr. R. M. Belbin Belbin Team Roles are used to identify people's behavioural strengths and weaknesses in theworkplace. This information can be used to: 1
  2. 2. Build productive working relationships Select and develop high-performing teams Raise self-awareness and personal effectiveness Build mutual trust and understanding Aid recruitment processes Team Role DEFINITION Team Role DEFINITION Belbin Team Roles measure behaviour, not personality, and so can be defined as: A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way. Dr. Meredith Belbin The Team Roles that Meredith Belbin identified are used widely in thousands of organisations all over the world today. By identifying our Team Roles, we can ensure that we use our strengths to advantage and that wemanage our weaknesses as best we can. Sometimes, this means being aware of the pitfalls and making an effort to avoid them. The NINE TEAM ROLES Contents    2 1 History 2 Application and use 3 Belbin Team roles  3.1 Plant  3.2 Resource Investigator  3.3 Co-ordinator
  3. 3.        3.4 Shaper  3.5 Monitor Evaluator  3.6 Teamworker  3.7 Implementer  3.8 Completer Finisher  3.9 Specialist 4 Validity and reliability 5 Other team role inventories  5.1 Team Management System (TMS)  5.2 Star Roles Model Four principal factors involved in building up are intelligence , dominance Extrovert/ introvert, & stability/ anxiety He devised self perception inventory &computerized interplace system to satisfy the wideneeds of organizations.( ref Adrian & He defined jobs as work sets .The boundaries of the jobs are defined by the interactive communication processes between the worker & the manager. WARREN BENIS:jjjjjj . Adhocracy was an important concept as a counter to hierarchy ,centralized control,& bureaucratic organization. Managers & leaders are they different?Benis emphasized complete qualitativedifference. e.g.Managers do things right .Leaders do right things.However managers can become leaders by learning &trg . 4 core common factors are 1) attention thro vision 2)Meaning thro communication 3)Trust thro positioning 4)Deployment of self thro positive self regard. Positive self regard is related to emotional wisdom which according to Benis covers 5 skills(1)acceptothers as theyare (2)approach only with reference to the present (3)Treat others with courteous attention(4) Trust others even when the risk appears high (5)Do w/o constant approval & recognition. Almost all leaders responded to failures as a learning experience. The type of leadership discussed by Benis is termed Transformative.It has empowering effect on others .Four elements of empowering according to Bemis ,are 1)significance 2)competence 3) community And 4) enjoyment The five myths of leadership which are discussed are 1)leadership –a rare skill ? –no 2)leaders are born –no 3) are charismatic –no are ordinary persons(4) can exist only at the top – no at all levels (5)Leaders control ,direct & manipulate –no they only align the energies of others behind an attractive goals. He is considered romantic. KENNETH BLANCHARD Known for his “one minute manager” The ABCs 1)Activators (2)behavior (3)consequences. 3
  4. 4. The steps( 1)one minute goal setting –making it clear what tasks people are to do, what sort of behavior or performance is expected of them, .important goals should be written down in a single sheet of paper. 2) one minute praising : is the second secret.Is the key to improved performance.It is the key to developing peopleThe steps are (1)Praise some one in time-on the spot(2) Be specific- mention the act that is being praised &how well it is performed (3) sharing the feelings – How you feel about what they did 3) one minute reprimanding is the third secret.(a) immediate but not in the open.(b) at the same time tell how good they are & how best they can do (c) be specific –pin-point the mistake ,admonish the action& not label the person.(d ) sharing feeling are as important in reprimanding as in one minute praising. How to turn the three secrets intoskilswas explained by him in the next book , “Putting the one minute manager to work “- consisted of (a) ABC of management (b) effective reprimanding(c)price system Reprimanding depends on the situation.Mistake out of ignorance requires education &trg.; Where an employee fails to do something is an attitude problem & needs reprimanding.Reprimanding should end up with a positive note. The Price system: (a) Pinpoint (b)Record (c)Involve (d)coach (e)evaluate. ONE MINUTE MANAGER MEETS THE MONKEY : deals with problems of time Mgt. &overload.He considers manager as “ A hero with all the solutions & answers” Blanchard concentrated on individual development rather than org. development. Brevity, short & to the point, no dry &stuffy theory ,practical wisdom are the plus points. Dale Carnegie . According to him criticism is counter productive.It should be seldom used to motivate or change people .He recommended self control ,understanding & forgiveness. Influence people & achieve your aims.He suggests a policy of give&take , first give what they want,then they will help you to achieve want you want.All people have the urge to be important .Carnegie by a series of illustrations explains “ how nourishing a person’s self esteemyou can achieve far better results than criticism”First u make them like you.Win people to your way of thinking.Change them w/o arousing resentment.Encourage them & tell them what you want & get it done. He emphasized& encouraged communication; Prepare, deliver &influence.Closure should focus on the objective. He concentrated on interpersonal skills development. Alfred D.Chandler, Jr.. He concentrated on macro aspects & evolved the concept of “managerial Enterprise”.It moved in 2 directions.1) forward from the past to the present 2)backward from the present to the past. His book “Strategy &structure”took business history into new dimentions. His “visible Hand “contrary to adamsmith’s”invisible hand “is another mile stone book. History is the only way individuals & companies can learn from experience & learning by experience is the only way to increase productivity & competitiveness. Stephen R Covey His contribution 4
  5. 5. “The seven Habits of highly effective People” The three stages 1) dependence in childhood. (2)independence in adolescence. (3)interdependence. In this background the seven habits which help are 1) Be proactive 2) begin with the end in mind (goal) (3)put first things first (priority) 2) (4)Think win- win situation cooperation & not competition in work place or no deal 3) Seek first to understand & then to be understood.( listen & then React) 4) Synergize 5) Sharpen thesaw-( do not forget to attend to the tools). His major work “ first things First “breaks down life’activities into 4 quadrants 1)urgent& important –crises, deadlines , opportunities. 2)not urgent but important-learning,planning,relationship,buildingetc 3)urgent but Not important- meetings & interruptions 4) neither important Nor urgent-gossip ,time wasters. All effective people focus on 2 sothat 1 is less. Edward Deming Has been universally acclaimedas one of the founding fathers of TQM. His 14 points have been adopted & assimilated into Mgt thinking. His 14 points cover both scientific Mgt&human relations (hard & soft 0 Peter Drucker 1) End of economic Man. Concentrates on politics &economics of the Thirties. 2) The future of industrial Man -dangers of planning founded on denial of freedom 3) The concept of corporation –what has worked in the past ,will it hold good for thefuture? 4) Selfgoverning plant community –empowering the work force. 5) His other book : Practice of management established him as a leader in this field.He said business existed for satisfying the customer.He sets out 8 objectives of business .They are (a)market standing (b)innovation (c) productivity.(d )physical & financial resources (e) profitability (f) managerial performance & development (g) workers performance &attitude.(h) public responsibility. 6) He also introduced the concept of MBO &self control 7) The other 7 tasks are (I) Mbo (ii)Risk taking & allow risk taking decision at lower level (iii)make strategic decisions (iv)build integrated team (v)communicate quickly &clearly ,motivate, gain commitment & participation (vi)look at business as a whole. (vii)look at social , economic,& political development on world wide scale. 8) His book Management; Tasks responsicibilities& practices is a treatise on management & a management hand book.Manager’s work involves 5 basic operations of Setting objective ,organizing, motivating ,communicating& measurement of performances .&develop people. 5
  6. 6. 9) The age of discontinuity published in 1969 is trying to answer the question What we will have to tackle today To make Tomorrow.He advocated privatization. 10) His next book The turbulent times considers change , uncertainty &Turbulence as underpinning themes.Whatever he suggested 10 years back have become realities of today. MARY PARKER FOLLET Her concept of leadership ,as the ability to develop & integrate group ideas,using power with people rather than power over a modern idea.Folletidentified 4 principles of coordination. (1) Reciprocal relating (2) direct contact-& directcommunication (3)coordination should begin early stages & involve all people. (4) it is a continuing process. (2) Follet’s views on on power, leadership , authority & control which she felt to be exercised in group will be the obvious route to achievements Ghoshal& Bartlett. Their book” Managing across borders” was cited as one of the 50 most influential business books of the century by Financial Times. There they tried to answer 2 questions (1) what does strategy mean? (2)Why do time honored business models –no longer work? Answer to 2nd question lies in complexities of international competition & growing global market place which has resulted in the inability of organizations to cope survive & succeed in the face of diversity & accelerating change. In this context they found 3 types of models in operation.(1) Multi national( unilever )(2)Global( Ford) (3)Tech focused transfer of Knowledge to less advanced environments ( countries) .These should lead to a 4th model The transnational , which would combine the advantages of all the above three models & also exploit local knowledge s the key weapon in identifying opportunities & does not operate as overseas branches. They examined Sloan’s old model ( GM) the model of Three S,s ( strategy- structure & systems ).It started to break in 1980s when converging technologies ,fluctuating markets & overnight competition & innovation combined to make it’s control system cumbersome & ultimately a risk to survival .In their Article “ A new manifesto for management “ they pointed out this system were stifling initiative , creativity &diversity.They also indirectly attacked porter’s work.His strategic thinking suggested reducing competition by buying out or quality improvements .His theory is static in that , it focuses strategic thinking on getting the “largest share of fixed economic pie”.According to ghoshal organizations exist not to appropriate value but to create value “ by changing the smell of the place” . The spring time theory Introduced the concept of stultifying atmosphere in control &system oriented corporate climate & required a transfusion of new cultural atmosphere of more open & dynamic environmental change. He also introduced the concept of three Ps –purpose , process ,&people.To create a shared ambition to provide meaning for every body’sefforts. The new moral contract concept introduced Ghoshal is based on “Developing Employability & providing challenging Jobs” rather than functional boxes.The will to develop is the only hedge against global competition & changing Job market. 6
  7. 7. Companies must shift from acquiring value to create value,.Instead of being cogs in a system should become facilitators & people developers drawing creativity from others. Frank & Lilian Gilbreth Are known for their work in work simplification,therbligs, micronometer(1/2000, of a second)process flow charts, & industrial Psychology. Charles Handy Four of Handy’s books make an outstanding contribution to the study of Management.Theyare : 1)Understandingorganisations, 2)God’s of management (3)The age unreason (4)The age of paradox. Understanding organizations deal with concepts & concepts in application.Deals with motivation , roles & interactions, leadership ,power , influence , working of groups & culture of organizations.A land mark study , valuable for students &guide for the practicing managers. Gods of MGT. Deals with various cultures, like club culture(zeus)centralized communication; role culture (Apollo)orders & roles represented by Greek Temple., task culture( Athena)WISDOM; Existential culture (Dionysus) God of wine & song.This type of culture are those that exists to serve the individual & in which individuals are not servants of the organization.This consists of group of professionals like lawywer& doctors with no boss coordination. Changing organizations. 1) Development of contracting out (2)Basing on quest for profit on intelligence & professional skills rather than manual work & machines. 2) Days of working for one employer OR inone occupation are coming to end. 3) Shamrock organization.( the Age of unreason)He uses this symbol to represent three bases on which people are employed to day. (a) Core of professionals, technicians & managers rewarded with high salaries inreturn for commitment & hard work.. (b)Contracted specialists & consultants like for project preparation. Advertising etc. (c)Flexiblelabour force, fulltime, part time,temporary& seasonal roles. 4) Federal organization &inverted doughnut.:first explored in the book the age of unreason & expanded in “The Empty Rain Coat”Not handing out or delegating power, but ruling & unifying only with the consent & agreement of units under the organizationas equal partners. 5) Portfolio Working & downshifting : working for more than one employer,shifting from organization to organization,testing their skill & talents in different situations helps to ensure & discover in which they are really good ,efficient & effective FREDERICK HERZBERG 1) The HygieneMotivation theory :He postulated two sets of needs.(1) Low level need ; The animal needs of, the need to avoid pain & deprivation(2) 7
  8. 8. 2)Higher level Need as human being : The need to grow mentally & psychologically He called the former group as Hygiene Factors & the Latter as Motivators or growth factors. No H-factors No M/G-factors 1 Company policy &admn. 1 Achievement 2 Supervision 2 Recognition 3 Working relationship 3 The work itself 4 Working conditions 4 Responsibility 5 Status 5 Advancement 6 Security 6 growth 7 Pay 7 The H-factors donot act as motivators but the absence of them creates dissatisfaction .He also called them as “Maintenance factors” Motivating /growth factors are really the motivators .These two factors are not opposites but compliment & supplement each other. KITA- kick in the ass Kicks merely produce movement & avoidance of pain. What genuinely motivates are those things which are intangible & intrinsic to the job.He also explained this phenomenon by bibilicalallusions : Animal –Adam(H-Factors) ; Human - Abraham (G-Factors) Job enrichment was considered an essential requirement of Motivation. Hawthorne expts of Elton mayo, Abraham Maslow ,Douglas McGregor allbelong to this School of thought. 8
  9. 9. Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Position New Market Entrants, eg: entry ease/barriers geographical factors incumbents resistance new entrant strategy routes to market Supplier Power, eg: brand reputation geographical coverage product/service level quality relationships with customers bidding processes/capabilities Competitive Rivalry, eg: number and size of firms industry size and trends fixed v variable cost bases product/service ranges differentiation, strategy Product and Technology Development, eg: alternatives price/quality market distribution changes fashion and trends legislative effects 9 Buyer Power, eg: buyer choice buyers size/number change cost/frequency product/service importance volumes, JIT scheduling
  10. 10. Joseph M Juran, He Introduced “ pareto’s concept of unequal distribution”- vital few & trivial many became known as Pareto’s Principle. Juran Defines A Break through as “ change, a dynamic, decisive movement to a new & higher levels of performance” As against control which means “ staying on course, adherence to standard,prevention of change” Not all controls are negative & all breakthroughs are positive .They are a form of continuing cycle of events. Juan Triology& quality Planning version of his Triology is 1)Q- Planning( 2) Q- control(3) Q- improvement Juran’s formula for success: 1)set up specific Goals (2) establish plans (3)Fix responsibility(4)Reward on the results achieved. 10