David Matsumoto & Linda Juang

                 Ethnocentrism & Enculturation
                 Culture and Psychology
    ...
Contents

                 Slide 3-4    Ethnocentrism: definition, development, and psychological factors



             ...
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development




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Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development

                           The tendency to view the world
           Ethnocentr...
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development

                           The tendency to view the world
           Ethnocentr...
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development

                           The tendency to view the world
           Ethnocentr...
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development

                           The tendency to view the world
           Ethnocentr...
Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development

                           The tendency to view the world
           Ethnocentr...
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism




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Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism




                 Emotions




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Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism




                 Emotions                     Values




@ Tjitra, 2010
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism




                 Emotions                     Values




                      ...
Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism




                 Emotions                      Values


                       ...
Stereotypes: Definition and Types




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Stereotypes: Definition and Types




@ Tjitra, 2010
Stereotypes: Definition and Types


                               Generalized images that we have
                       ...
Stereotypes: Definition and Types


                                  Generalized images that we have
                    ...
Stereotypes: Definition and Types


                                     Generalized images that we have
                 ...
Stereotypes: Definition and Types


                                     Generalized images that we have
                 ...
Psychological Development of Stereotypes




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Psychological Development of Stereotypes




 Appraisal                                              Emotion




Attributi...
Psychological Development of Stereotypes



                       Keep Categories about the World
 Appraisal             ...
Psychological Development of Stereotypes



                       Keep Categories about the World
 Appraisal             ...
Psychological Development of Stereotypes



                       Keep Categories about the World
 Appraisal             ...
Prejudice and Discrimination




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Prejudice and Discrimination

                             The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of
               ...
Prejudice and Discrimination

                             The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of
               ...
Prejudice and Discrimination

                             The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of
               ...
Prejudice and Discrimination

                             The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of
               ...
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice




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Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice



                             Responsible Factors:
                 Int...
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice



                             Responsible Factors:
                 Int...
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice



                             Responsible Factors:
                 Int...
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice



                             Responsible Factors:
                 Int...
Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice



                             Responsible Factors:
                 Int...
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




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Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




@ Tjitra, 2010
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




@ Tjitra, 2010
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




                                                 Prejudice and Discriminatio...
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




                         Recognize the existence of Stereotypes




        ...
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




                         Recognize the existence of Stereotypes




        ...
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




                         Recognize the existence of Stereotypes




        ...
Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination




                         Recognize the existence of Stereotypes




        ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice




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Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                             Ethnocentrism


                          ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                                          Ethnocentrism


             ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                                          Ethnocentrism


             ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                                          Ethnocentrism


             ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                                          Ethnocentrism


             ...
Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice


                                          Ethnocentrism


             ...
Enculturation and Socialization




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Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Enculturation and Socialization


                                 The process by which we learn and internalize the
     ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents




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Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents


                                 • Goals and Beliefs of Parents
               ...
Parenting Styles

                                             Warm

                      Authoritative                  ...
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization




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Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization




                 Postfigurative
                   cultures



          Cul...
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization




                 Postfigurative          Cofigurative
                   cul...
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization




                 Postfigurative          Cofigurative                Prefigu...
Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization

                 Low                                                           ...
Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement


                        Cross National Differences in Math
               ...
Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement


                         Cross National Differences in Math
              ...
www.SinauOnline.com




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Thanks You
                 Any comments & questions
                 are welcome
                 Contact me at hora_t@si...
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Ethnocentrism & Enculturation: a Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives

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An introduction to Ethnocentrism & Enculturation from the Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Ethnocentrism & Enculturation: a Cross-cultural Psychology Perspectives

  1. 1. David Matsumoto & Linda Juang Ethnocentrism & Enculturation Culture and Psychology Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth. Liu Jun & Dr. Hora Tjitra www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010
  2. 2. Contents Slide 3-4 Ethnocentrism: definition, development, and psychological factors Slide 5-6 Stereotypes: definition, types, and psychological development Slide 7-9 Prejudice and discrimination: definition, origins, and going beyond Slide 10 Review: ethnocentrism, stereotypes and prejudice Slide 11-12 Enculturation, socialization and socialization agents Slide 13 Parenting styles Slide 14 Peer influence on socialization Slide 15 Education and enculturation: math achievement @ Tjitra, 2010
  3. 3. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development @ Tjitra, 2010
  4. 4. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development The tendency to view the world Ethnocentrism through one’s own cultural filters. @ Tjitra, 2010
  5. 5. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development The tendency to view the world Ethnocentrism through one’s own cultural filters. A normal consequence of socialization and enculturation. @ Tjitra, 2010
  6. 6. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development The tendency to view the world Ethnocentrism through one’s own cultural filters. A normal consequence of socialization and enculturation. As we become enculturated, we learn how to act, how to perceive and interpret how other people act. @ Tjitra, 2010
  7. 7. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development The tendency to view the world Ethnocentrism through one’s own cultural filters. A normal consequence of socialization and enculturation. As we become enculturated, we learn how to act, how to perceive and interpret how other people act. By the time we are adults, we hardly notice the culture filters in our mind. @ Tjitra, 2010
  8. 8. Ethnocentrism: Definition and Development The tendency to view the world Ethnocentrism through one’s own cultural filters. A normal consequence of socialization and enculturation. As we become enculturated, we learn how to act, how to perceive and interpret how other people act. By the time we are adults, we hardly notice the culture filters in our mind. However, it’s possible that we are aware of this ethnocentrism: develop flexible ethnocentrism. @ Tjitra, 2010
  9. 9. Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism @ Tjitra, 2010
  10. 10. Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions @ Tjitra, 2010
  11. 11. Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions Values @ Tjitra, 2010
  12. 12. Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions Values Self @ Tjitra, 2010
  13. 13. Psychological Factors in Ethnocentrism Emotions Values Maintenance and Development of Ethnocentrism Self @ Tjitra, 2010
  14. 14. Stereotypes: Definition and Types @ Tjitra, 2010
  15. 15. Stereotypes: Definition and Types @ Tjitra, 2010
  16. 16. Stereotypes: Definition and Types Generalized images that we have about groups of people, particularly Stereotypes about their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits. @ Tjitra, 2010
  17. 17. Stereotypes: Definition and Types Generalized images that we have about groups of people, particularly Stereotypes about their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits. Positive Negative @ Tjitra, 2010
  18. 18. Stereotypes: Definition and Types Generalized images that we have about groups of people, particularly Stereotypes about their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits. Positive Negative Generally True Completely False @ Tjitra, 2010
  19. 19. Stereotypes: Definition and Types Generalized images that we have about groups of people, particularly Stereotypes about their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits. Positive Negative Generally True Completely False Autostereotypes Heterostereotypes @ Tjitra, 2010
  20. 20. Psychological Development of Stereotypes @ Tjitra, 2010
  21. 21. Psychological Development of Stereotypes Appraisal Emotion Attribution Memory Selective Attention Concept formation and categorization @ Tjitra, 2010
  22. 22. Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Appraisal Emotion Attribution Memory Selective Attention Concept formation and categorization @ Tjitra, 2010
  23. 23. Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Appraisal Emotion Confirm the Stereotypes Attribution Memory Selective Attention Concept formation and categorization @ Tjitra, 2010
  24. 24. Psychological Development of Stereotypes Keep Categories about the World Appraisal Emotion Confirm the Stereotypes Reinforce Our Self-concept Memory Attribution Selective Attention Concept formation and categorization @ Tjitra, 2010
  25. 25. Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  26. 26. Prejudice and Discrimination The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of Prejudice their group membership, solely in terms of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  27. 27. Prejudice and Discrimination The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of Prejudice their group membership, solely in terms of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  28. 28. Prejudice and Discrimination The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of Prejudice their group membership, solely in terms of their stereotype. Cognitive Affective (thinking) (feeling) Component Component @ Tjitra, 2010
  29. 29. Prejudice and Discrimination The tendency to prejudge others on the basis of Prejudice their group membership, solely in terms of their stereotype. Cognitive Affective (thinking) (feeling) Component Component Unfair treatment of others based on their group Discrimination membership. @ Tjitra, 2010
  30. 30. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice @ Tjitra, 2010
  31. 31. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others @ Tjitra, 2010
  32. 32. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through @ Tjitra, 2010
  33. 33. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class @ Tjitra, 2010
  34. 34. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class to to @ Tjitra, 2010
  35. 35. Origins of and Factors Contributing to Prejudice Responsible Factors: Intergroup Power Conflicts, Sociobiology, Socialcultural History, Personality, and others through Attached Factors: Race, Ethnicity, or Social Class to to Prejudice Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  36. 36. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  37. 37. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  38. 38. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  39. 39. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  40. 40. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize the existence of Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination @ Tjitra, 2010
  41. 41. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize the existence of Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize their inherent limitations @ Tjitra, 2010
  42. 42. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize the existence of Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize their inherent limitations Recognize individual differences @ Tjitra, 2010
  43. 43. Going beyond Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize the existence of Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Recognize their inherent limitations Recognize individual differences Learn to control emotions @ Tjitra, 2010
  44. 44. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice @ Tjitra, 2010
  45. 45. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. @ Tjitra, 2010
  46. 46. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. Stereotypes Generalized images that we have about groups of people on their underlying psychological characteristics or personality traits) @ Tjitra, 2010
  47. 47. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. Stereotypes Prejudice Generalized images that we have about The tendency to groups of people prejudge others on on their underlying the basis of their psychological group membership, characteristics solely in terms or personality traits) of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  48. 48. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. Stereotypes Prejudice Generalized images that we have about The tendency to groups of people prejudge others on on their underlying the basis of their psychological group membership, characteristics solely in terms or personality traits) of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  49. 49. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. Stereotypes Prejudice Generalized images that we have about The tendency to groups of people prejudge others on on their underlying the basis of their psychological group membership, characteristics solely in terms or personality traits) of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  50. 50. Review: Ethnocentrism, Stereotypes and Prejudice Ethnocentrism The tendency to view the world through one’s own cultural filters. Stereotypes Prejudice Generalized images that we have about The tendency to groups of people prejudge others on on their underlying the basis of their psychological group membership, characteristics solely in terms or personality traits) of their stereotype. @ Tjitra, 2010
  51. 51. Enculturation and Socialization @ Tjitra, 2010
  52. 52. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  53. 53. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. Enculturation The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  54. 54. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. Process and Mechanism Enculturation The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  55. 55. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. Process and Mechanism Enculturation The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  56. 56. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. Process and Mechanism Products Enculturation The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  57. 57. Enculturation and Socialization The process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected Socialization by culture. Process and Mechanism Socialization (and enculturation) agents: the people, institutions, and organizations that exist to help ensure that socialization (or enculturation) occurs. Products Enculturation The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their culture. @ Tjitra, 2010
  58. 58. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents @ Tjitra, 2010
  59. 59. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies @ Tjitra, 2010
  60. 60. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Siblings @ Tjitra, 2010
  61. 61. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Extended Siblings Families @ Tjitra, 2010
  62. 62. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Extended Siblings Families Peers @ Tjitra, 2010
  63. 63. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Extended Siblings Families Peers Day Care @ Tjitra, 2010
  64. 64. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Extended Siblings Families Peers Day Care Religion Institutions @ Tjitra, 2010
  65. 65. Socialization (and Enculturation) Agents • Goals and Beliefs of Parents Parenting • Parenting Styles • Parenting Behaviors and Strategies Extended Siblings Families Peers Day Care Religion Educational Institutions System @ Tjitra, 2010
  66. 66. Parenting Styles Warm Authoritative Permissive Sensitive to the child’s Warm and nurturing to maturity and are firm, fair, their children; allow them and reasonable. Express to regulate their own a high degree of warmth lives and provide few and affection to them. firm guidelines. Guide & Parenting Indulgent Control Styles Authoritarian Uninvolved Expect unquestioned Do not seem obedience and view the committed to care child as needing to be giving, beyond the controlled. Be low on Minimum effort required warmth and responsive- to meet the physical ness toward the children. wants of their child. Cool @ Tjitra, 2010
  67. 67. Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization @ Tjitra, 2010
  68. 68. Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Postfigurative cultures Cultural change is slow, Socialization occurs primarily by elders transferring know- ledge to their children. Elders hold the know- ledge necessary for becoming a successful and competent adult. @ Tjitra, 2010
  69. 69. Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Postfigurative Cofigurative cultures Cultures Cultural change is slow, Cultural change occurs Socialization occurs more rapidly, adults primarily by elders continue to socialize transferring know- their children, but peers ledge to their children. play a greater role Elders hold the know- in socializing each other. ledge necessary for Young people may have becoming a successful to turn to one another for and competent adult. advice and information. @ Tjitra, 2010
  70. 70. Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Postfigurative Cofigurative Prefigurative cultures Cultures Cultures Cultural change is slow, Cultural change occurs Culture is changing so Socialization occurs more rapidly, adults rapidly that young primarily by elders continue to socialize people may be the ones transferring know- their children, but peers to teach adults. The ledge to their children. play a greater role knowledge that adults Elders hold the know- in socializing each other. hold may not be ledge necessary for Young people may have sufficient for the becoming a successful to turn to one another for next generation. and competent adult. advice and information. @ Tjitra, 2010
  71. 71. Levels of Peer Influence on Socialization Low High Postfigurative Cofigurative Prefigurative cultures Cultures Cultures Cultural change is slow, Cultural change occurs Culture is changing so Socialization occurs more rapidly, adults rapidly that young primarily by elders continue to socialize people may be the ones transferring know- their children, but peers to teach adults. The ledge to their children. play a greater role knowledge that adults Elders hold the know- in socializing each other. hold may not be ledge necessary for Young people may have sufficient for the becoming a successful to turn to one another for next generation. and competent adult. advice and information. @ Tjitra, 2010
  72. 72. Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement Cross National Differences in Math Achievement @ Tjitra, 2010
  73. 73. Education and Enculturation: Math Achievement Cross National Differences in Math Achievement • Language • School Systems • Parental and Family Values • Attitudes and Appraisals of Students • Teaching Styles and Teacher–Student Relationships @ Tjitra, 2010
  74. 74. www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010 16
  75. 75. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@sianuonline.com www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010 16

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