Culture psy ch1


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Culture psy ch1

  1. 1. An Introduction to Culture and Psychology Chapter 1
  2. 2. The Goals of Psychology <ul><ul><li>Create body of knowledge about people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying knowledge to improve people’s lives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cross-Cultural Research and Psychology <ul><li>Most theories in psychology based on studies with American university students </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural research involves the inclusion of people of different cultural backgrounds (gender, race, ethnicity, culture, class or lifestyle) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural research tests whether people of different cultures are similar or different </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cross-Cultural Research and Psychology <ul><li>Tests possible limitations in our knowledge; examines whether psychological theories and principles are universal (true for all people of all cultures) or culture-specific (true for some people of some cultures) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Growth of Cross-Cultural Psychology <ul><li>Cross-cultural psychology has made substantial impact in psychology worldwide in the past decade or two </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity of cross-cultural psychology is due to increased awareness of importance of culture and frequency of intercultural conflicts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Six general categories used to define “culture” <ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive highlights different types of activities or behaviors associated with a culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical refers to the heritage and tradition associated with a group of people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normative describes the rules and norms of the culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological emphasizes learning, problem solving, other beh approaches of the culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural emphasizes organizational elements of the culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic refers to the origins of the culture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Where does culture come from? <ul><li>In order to survive, people had to meet biological needs (e.g. reproduction, eating) AND social motives (e.g. negotiating complex hierarchies, attracting mates, child rearing ) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal need to come up with solutions on how to adapt to environment to address our biological needs and social motives </li></ul>
  8. 8. Where does culture come from? <ul><li>These solutions dependent on context (e.g. physical environment, social factors, types & sizes of families and communities). </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is unique about human culture? <ul><li>Unique human skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Language (promotes inter/intracommunication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Complex social cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-executive functioning of brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-morality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Ratchet effect: advance/improve culture by constantly moving forward </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is unique about human culture? <ul><li>Humans have evolved to have human culture </li></ul><ul><li>Human cultures ensure a great diversity in life </li></ul><ul><li>Increased diversity greatly aids in survival </li></ul>
  11. 11. The difference between society and culture <ul><li>Large distinction between society and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Society is “a system of interrelationships among people” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both humans and non-human animals have society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture is meanings and information associated with social networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans give social groups unique meaning </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Factors Influencing Culture <ul><li>Ecological Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate (i.e., clothes worn, food eaten, diseases/infections, weather-related activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources (i.e., land void of natural resources encourages teamwork) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Factors Influencing Culture <ul><li>Social Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population density (high density require more social order) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affluence (promotes greater independence) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology (work globalization; isolation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government (limit/expand interdependence) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media (expand world view) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion (support system) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Factors Influencing Culture <ul><li>Biological Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Groups that have Culture <ul><li>Nationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country of origin and each country has own culture (as well as subcultures) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique sociocultural history, government, economic base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common racial, nationality, geographic origin, culture, or language </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Groups that have Culture <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors society/culture deems appropriate for men and women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some type of physical impairment in senses, limb, or other parts of bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person with whom one forms sexual relationships </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Culture and Race <ul><ul><li>Race is not culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race is a social construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries & definition of race different for different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need clear understanding of underlying causes of similarities and differences observed between races </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Psychological Contents <ul><li>Hofstede’s cultural dimensions p20 </li></ul><ul><li>Schwartz’s values p20 </li></ul><ul><li>Leung and Bond’s Social Axioms p21 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Individualism: responsible for self, immediate fam </li></ul><ul><li>United States, Australia, Great Britain, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>country-wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism: members responsible for the entire group; </li></ul><ul><li>Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Taiwan; </li></ul><ul><li>country-poor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Power Distance </li></ul><ul><li>-low power distance culture </li></ul><ul><li>1) general feeling of equality </li></ul><ul><li>2) certain distrust for authority </li></ul><ul><li>-high power distance culture </li></ul><ul><li>1) direct confrontation and assertiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>2) great respect for authority </li></ul><ul><li>3) rely more on symbols of power (Dr., Chef, </li></ul><ul><li>Professor) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>-degree to which people feel threatened by </li></ul><ul><li>the unknown </li></ul><ul><li>-develop beliefs, rituals, institutions to avoid </li></ul><ul><li>fears </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Masculinity, Femininity </li></ul><ul><li>-Masculine cultures emphasize success; </li></ul><ul><li>socialize people to be assertive, ambitious, competitive </li></ul><ul><li>-Feminine cultures emphasize the quality of life and close interpersonal relationships; </li></ul><ul><li>socialize people to be modest </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions <ul><li>Long, Short Term Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>-degree to which culture encourages </li></ul><ul><li>delayed gratification of material, social and </li></ul><ul><li>emotional needs </li></ul>
  24. 24. Schwartz’s Values <ul><li>Embeddedness: degree culture </li></ul><ul><li>-emphasizes maintenance of status quo </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters social order, respect for tradition, </li></ul><ul><li>family security, and self-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy: degree culture </li></ul><ul><li>-legitimacy of social power, authority, </li></ul><ul><li>humility or wealth </li></ul>
  25. 25. Schwartz’s Values <ul><li>Mastery: degree cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-emphasize getting ahead through active self- </li></ul><ul><li>assertion </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters ambition, success, competence </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Autonomy: degree cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-promote and protect independent ideas and rights </li></ul><ul><li>to pursue intellectual interests </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters curiosity, broadmindedness, creativity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Schwartz’s Values <ul><li>Affective Autonomy: degree cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-promote and protect independent pursuit of </li></ul><ul><li>positive experiences </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters pleasure, exciting life </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism: degree cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-emphasize transcending selfish interests </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters equality, social justice, freedom, </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility, honest </li></ul>
  27. 27. Schwartz’s Values <ul><li>Harmony: degree cultures </li></ul><ul><li>-emphasize fitting in with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>-fosters unity, protecting environment </li></ul>
  28. 28. Leung and Bond’s Social Axioms <ul><li>Dynamic externality: outward-oriented, </li></ul><ul><li>simplistic grappling with external forces </li></ul><ul><li>-high: more collectivistic, conservative; </li></ul><ul><li>-high unemployment, less freedom, fewer human- </li></ul><ul><li>rights activities; </li></ul><ul><li>-high aspiration for security, material resources, </li></ul><ul><li>longer life </li></ul>
  29. 29. Leung and Bond’s Social Axioms <ul><li>Societal cynicism: predominately cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>apprehension or pessimism of the world </li></ul><ul><li>-high: people are surrounded by negative </li></ul><ul><li>outcomes; </li></ul><ul><li>suppressed by powerful others </li></ul>
  30. 30. Behavior and Worldviews <ul><li>Cultural worldviews: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally specific belief systems (attitudes, beliefs, opinions and values) about the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having cultural worldviews is universal but content of it is culture specific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural worldviews and behavior are sometimes not related to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore cultural differences in worldview may or may not be associated with cultural differences in behavior </li></ul>
  31. 31. Understanding culture in perspective: universals and culture-specifics <ul><li>Universals : psychological processes in which all humans engage </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) all humans make attributions about reasons underlying human behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture-specifics : differences among cultures dues to specific, unique environments of cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) different cultures may differ in the way they make attributions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Cultural influences on behavior and mental processes <ul><li>This system is dynamic and interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>Although culture is an important factor influencing behavior so are other factors like personality, context </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on context, cultural influences on behavior may change </li></ul>