Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research
from the indigenous perspective

            Summary presentation based on ...
Outline
 Research approaches to explain cultural
  differences
 Two types of Indigenization
 Analysis of culture
 Reli...
Research approaches to explain cultural differences




The universalist approach                                         ...
Two types of Indigenization
     Indigenization from without                   Indigenization from within
        Transpo...
Analysis of culture

                                                    Culture outsider




           Culture Insider

...
Understanding culture from without (1)

        Traditional psychology: culture was considered to be contextual
    factor...
Understanding culture from without (2)

          Cross-cultural psychology: culture is
           treated as a quasi-ind...
Understanding a culture from within
      The indigenous psychologies approach recognized two types of
       knowledge:
...
Religion, culture and science ---Confucianism


                             • Dao constitutes the very
                  ...
Confucian developmental stages

   Context                                    Character Age


                            ...
Limitations on using Confucianism
to explain behavior

          Confucianism can be used as a descriptive
           mod...
Three impositions of psychology and
the indigenous psychologies approach

         First, researchers in the field of psy...
www.SinauOnline.com
Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective
Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective
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Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective

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Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective - based on the paper “Indigenous, cultural, and cross-cultural psychology: 
A theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological analysis” ( Uichol Kim, 2000)

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Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective

  1. 1. Incorporating “Culture” in psychology research from the indigenous perspective Summary presentation based on the paper “Indigenous, cultural, and cross-cultural psychology: A theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological analysis” ( Uichol Kim, 2000) and our group discussion. Gao Li & Dr. Hora Tjitra www.SinauOnline.com
  2. 2. Outline  Research approaches to explain cultural differences  Two types of Indigenization  Analysis of culture  Religion, culture and science ---Confucianism  Three impositions of psychology and the indigenous psychologies approach
  3. 3. Research approaches to explain cultural differences The universalist approach The contextualist approach It aims to discover abstract, Each culture should be understood nomothetic, and general laws of Cultural from its own frame of the reference, human functioning (Koch &Leary, including its own ecological, historical, 1985; Shepard 1987). differences philosophical, and religious context. An example of etic approch An example of emic approach Integrationist approach Recognizes the importance of integrating the context and content of psychological knowledge in our research for universals.
  4. 4. Two types of Indigenization Indigenization from without Indigenization from within  Transporting psychological theories,  A shift in the scientific paradigm, a concepts, and methods and modifying transformative change in which them to fit the local cultural context theories, concepts, and methods are developed from within, using a bottom-  Derived etic approach is an example up approach.  External imposition  The indigenous psychologies  Accommodative paradigm advocated by Kim and colleagues is an example  Indigenous knowledge is treated as an  Advocate examining knowledge, skills, auxiliary source, not as the primary and beliefs which people have about source of knowledge. themselves, and studying these  Translate traditional philosophical and aspects in their natural contexts religious texts into psychological  The goal is to create a more rigorous, concepts or theories, and then systematic, universal science that can empirically verify. be theoretically and empirically verified,  The current psychological knowledge rather than naively assumed. can be described as the psychology of psychologists, not the psychology of the lay public.
  5. 5. Analysis of culture Culture outsider Culture Insider  Cultural products ( e.g. music)  Psychological constructs ( e.g. attitudes)  Organized bodies of knowledge ( e.g. language) Participate in the creation and re-creation of these products e.g. burn a piece of cloth vs. a USA flag
  6. 6. Understanding culture from without (1) Traditional psychology: culture was considered to be contextual factor and not included in the research design. The goal of the psychology is to discover objective, abstract, and universal relationships between independent variables and dependent variables. Independent Intervening Dependent 1. Stimulus 1. Black Box 1. Response 2. Culture 2. Subject 2. Behavior 3. Central 3. information Processing unit 3. response Positivistic model of causality
  7. 7. Understanding culture from without (2)  Cross-cultural psychology: culture is treated as a quasi-independent variable and behavior as a dependent variable.  Indigenous psychology: culture is an emergent property of individuals and groups interacting with their and human environment. It’s through culture that we think, feel, behave, and interact with reality.
  8. 8. Understanding a culture from within  The indigenous psychologies approach recognized two types of knowledge: 1. Analytical, semantic, and declarative knowledge 2. Phenomenological, episodic, and procedural knowledge  The indigenous psychologies approach advocates a transaction model of the causality that focus on the generative and proactive aspects. Agent Situation Action Causal Causal Linkage Linkage 1 Meaning 2 Intention Performance Event Goal Transactional model of causality
  9. 9. Religion, culture and science ---Confucianism • Dao constitutes the very essence, basis, and unit of life that perpetuates order, goodness, and righteousness.( Lew,1977) e.g. Xiao Dao • Dao manifests itself in the harmonious opposition of yin and yang, and in humans through te (virtue, goodness, moral excellence).
  10. 10. Confucian developmental stages Context Character Age XIN ( ) Adult 19 Society ZHI ( ) Adolescent 9 School LI ( ) Child 6 Family YI ( ) Infant 2 Self Ren ( )
  11. 11. Limitations on using Confucianism to explain behavior  Confucianism can be used as a descriptive model, but it should not be used to as an explanatory model. Translate to psychological concepts and then empirically verified.  There are blind spots and biases in all philosophical traditions.  The lay public may not be fully aware of basic Confucian concepts such as ren, yi, li, zhi and xin.  Within a particular culture, there can be competing philosophies and worldviews.
  12. 12. Three impositions of psychology and the indigenous psychologies approach  First, researchers in the field of psychology imposed the natural science model to study human beings.  The second imposition is the assumption of the universality of psychological theories.  Third, expert or professional knowledge have imposed on the lay public.  The indigenous psychologies approach advocates liberation form these external impositions advocates the experience of phenomenon as an insider, for the first time.  The indigenous psychologies approach advocates a linkage of humanities (which focus on human experience ) with social sciences (which focus on analysis and verification).
  13. 13. www.SinauOnline.com

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