Leading Successfully Across Cultures


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A Summary from the Book Leading "When Cultures Collide: Leading Successfully Across Cultures" by Richard Lewis. How to become interculturally competence; how to deal with cultural differences; intercultural communication

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Leading Successfully Across Cultures

  1. 1. Richard D.Lewis When Cultures Collide Leading Successfully Across Cultures Ran Shan & Daisy Zheng www.SinauOnline.com
  2. 2. Richard D.Lewis • Richard Lewis has been active in the fields of applied and anthropological linguistics for over 35 years. • Mr. Lewis, who speaks 10 European and 2 Asiatic languages, is currently chairman of Richard Lewis Communications plc. • His recent book "When Cultures Collide" - a manual on how to manage successfully across cultures - has sold over 40,000 copies. • If you travel abroad or work in a multicultural team, When Cultures Collide is your essential companion for success.
  3. 3. Agenda 1 Getting to Grips with Culture Diversity 2 Managing Across Cultures 3 Getting to Know Each Other 4 Achieving Empathy
  4. 4. Different Language, Different World British Hunting elephants in British East Africa Dane Elephant-meat smorrebrod French The love life of elephants in French Equatorial Africa Spanish Techniques of elephant fighting American How to breed bigger and Finn What the better elephants elephants think “ELEPHANT” about Finland -- Journalists Competition Russian How we Swedish sent an elephant to Elephants and the moon the welfare state Indian The elephant as a means of transportation German The origin and development before the railway era of the India elephant in the years 1200-1950 (600 pages) Norwegian Norway and Norway s mountains
  5. 5. Different Culture, Different Norm Legal 1:restrictive drink-driving laws good good Legal 2: restrictive immigration laws good bad Finn ABNORMAL Spanish bad good Illegal 1: consistently making use of a friend at the telephone exchange to make free international calls bad bad Illegal 2: drug traffic
  6. 6. What is Culture? Hofstede: Individual Deviants Emperor Meiji The collective Shyness programming of the mind which Politeness distinguishes the Conceals feelings/Distrust of members of one Japanese verbosity/Desire to be in a category of people collective group Learned from another. programmin Respect for elders, g Traditions comfortable in hierarchy, etc. Anger at injustice, wants to be liked, love of young, gratitude for favors, survival procreation Common to Inherited mankind
  7. 7. Culture Shock – Paths for Core Beliefs Values & Core Beliefs Cultural Display resistance approval semi-acceptance defence repetition of display adaptation deadlock development of conciliation cultural trait withdraw empathy Accentuated traits, traditions Maybe try again sometime CULTURAL SYNERGY Alien Culture Own Cultural Friendly Cultural
  8. 8. Intercultural Management Categories of Culture The Use of Time Organization and Leadership Horizon and Team Building Communication Patterns During Meeting Beginning of A Meeting Negotiation Objectives Checklist for Successful Meeting
  9. 9. Categories of Culture (I) 1 Linear-Active Multi-Active Reactive dominated by timetables timetable unpredicted reacts to partner’s timetable and schedules does one thing at a time does several things at once reacts job-orientated people-orientated people-orientated introvert extrovert introvert sticks to plans changes plans makes slight changes follows correct procedures pulls strings inscrutable, calm brief on telephone talks for hours summarizes well unemotional emotional quietly caring accepts favors reluctantly seeks favors protects face of other delegates to competent delegates to relations delegates to reliable people colleagues
  10. 10. Categories of Culture (II) 2 Data- oriented Gather solid information and move steadily forward from this Culture database. liner- e.g. Swedes, Germans, Americans, Swiss and Northern Europeans, etc. active Dialogue -oriented Possess an enormous amount of information through their Culture own personal information networks. multi- e.g. Italians, Portuguese, French, Spanish, Arabs, Indians, etc. active Listenin Combine deference to database and print information with a g natural tendency to listen well and enter into sympathetic Culture dialogue. reactive e.g. Chinese, Japanese, Finn, Singaporeans, etc.
  11. 11. The Use of Time 9 AM 5 PM Linear Time westerners A B C D E F Cyclic Present Time A B easterners D E C Past F Future visible influential unknowable Malagas A B y Present F G C concept D E of time vaguely understood
  12. 12. Organization and Leadership Hierarchy & Autocratic FRENCH Consensus (GERMAN) Structures individualism, Nepotism (LATIN/ speed, drive ARAB) (USA) Consensus rule Primus inter Casual leadership (ASIAN) pares (SWEDISH) (BRITISH)
  13. 13. Horizons and Team Building Concepts & Values outside A Concepts B Concepts & Values & Values Concepts & A Horizon Values common B Horizon to A&B A Concepts B Concepts & Values & Values Concepts & Values outside Team Building– Deal with the horizon diversity
  14. 14. Communication Patterns During Meetings Barrier How to deal with Ending Opening Word Base Style through the whole process Clarity the Style Style barrier A Chart to Show Communication Style
  15. 15. Beginning of A Meeting Germany Formal intro. – Sit down – Begin Finland Formal intro. – Cup of coffee – Sit down – Begin Formal intro. – Cup of tea and biscuits – 10 minutes small talk USA (weather, comfort, sport) – Casual begin Formal intro. – 15 minutes small talk (politics, UK scandal, etc.) –Begin Formal intro. – Protocol seating – Green tea – 15-20 minutes small talk (harmonious pleasantries) – Sudden signal from senior Japanese –Begin Japan 20-30 minutes small talk (football, family matters) while others arrive – Begin when all are there Spain/Italy
  16. 16. Negotiation Objectives USA Japan Latin America 1. Harmonious relationships 1. Current deal 1. National “honor” and “direction taking” 2. Short-term profit 2. Personal prestige of 2. Securing market share and rapid growth chief negotiator 3. Consistent Profit 3. Long-term profit 3. Long-term relationship 4. Relationships with 4. Current deal 4. Current deal partner
  17. 17. Checklist for Successful Meeting (I)  What is the intended purpose of the meeting? preliminary, fact-finding, actual negotiation, social  Which is the best venue?  Who will attend? level, number, technicians  How long will it last? hours, days, weeks  Are the physical arrangements suitable? room size, seating, temperature, equipment, transport, accommodation for visitors  What entertainment arrangements are appropriate? meals, excursions, theatre  How much protocol does the other side expect? formality, dress, agendas  Which debating style are they likely to adopt? deductive, inductive, free-wheeling, aggressive, courteous  Who on their side is the decision maker? one person, several, or only consensus
  18. 18. Checklist for Successful Meeting (II)  How much flexibility can be expected during negotiation? give and take, moderation, fixed positions  How sensitive is the other side? national, personal  How much posturing and body language can be expected? facial expressions, impassivity, gestures, emotion  What are the likely priorities of the other side? profit, long-term relationship, victory, harmony  How wide is the cultural gap between the two sides? logic, religion, political, emotional  How acceptable are their ethics to us? observance of contracts, timescale  Will there be a language problem? common language, interpreters  What mechanisms exist for breaking deadlock or smoothing over difficulties?  To what extent may such factors as humor, sarcasm, wit, wise-cracking and impatience be allowed to spice the proceedings?
  19. 19. Getting to Know Each Other Britain France Japan Canada Germany Korea China United States Southeast Asia Latin America Australia
  20. 20. US Vs. CANADA Individualism Cosmopolitism Exaggerated Modest Imprudent & Busy Methodical Nationalism (Politically) stay cool Careless about Culture Difference Multi-cultural Do not trust others Trust others Feel superiority Feel inferiority Expansionism Conservative
  21. 21. BRITAIN Strike the golden Geographic mean between diversity excessive familiarity and premature familiarity Become very informal only after two or three British insularity: encounters feel “foreigners” intend to outsmart them Interested in long- Family term relationships oriented Use charm, vagueness, humor, understatement and apparent reasonableness in negotiation
  22. 22. AUSTRALIA Australian English Monumental cynicism Love criticizing themselves Classless society - Egalitarianism Take very poorly to being criticized Ready to help Do not like/trust people who constantly or too enthusiastically praise them
  23. 23. GERMANY Appearance Reality “On Time” all the time Time is central to German culture Very lengthy explanations Lay a proper foundation Pace of business life is too slow Complete action chains and wish to be thorough Too private Not a melting-pot society like the USA Too much secrecy in German organizations Knowledge is power Believe good procedures and process solve most Too many rules and regulations problems Make things too complex when developing ideas Life is complicated Disagree with people openly & lack delicacy Frankness is honest Rarely compliment subordinates on the job Perfectionists expect a job to be well done Heavy, boring, not visual enough Advertising Entertainment is an unnecessary distraction
  24. 24. FRANCE Appearance Reality Obstinate, always hold a different opinion from each Stick to what they believe is right other The length and magnificence of their historical Think themselves are clever than anyone else achievements French was once the internationally accepted Don’t like speak foreign languages, especially language of diplomacy and spoken widely in four English continents Overemotional Rarely abandon rationality Like to consider every aspect of a question before Talk too much at meetings making decisions Cannot keep to an agenda Must go back and forth to balance their decision Make poor team members A good education encourages them to go it alone Facts are not always that they seem. What is wrong Prefer ideas to facts with exploring ideas??
  25. 25. SOUTHEAST ASIA Western South-East Asian Love of individualism personal ego Fondness for the collective Life is a challenge Security and harmony Overt action Subtle, sometimes ambiguous action Profit sensitivity Social pressure sensitivity Law, contractual obligations define behavior Face saving, face giving define behavior Delegates to professionals Delegates to kinship Planning top down Policy & guideline top down, tactical plan bottom up External rewards Internal rewards Technological change is rapid Social and cultural change is evolutionary
  26. 26. CHINA Mainland Tough Louder talk Harmonize Word Base Moderate negotiation behind the scenes Clarity moralistic Semi- Without losing Using position confrontational & power face Hong Kong Restate Word Base Rather position Quick concessions to Clarity verbose Increase achieve deal eloquence
  27. 27. KOREA Observance of protocol Nationalism Obsession Confucian ethic with survival Adaptability Vertical society Tenacity Trickish Suspicion of Tendency to neighbors in violence general
  28. 28. JAPAN Deafen you Vague/ with silence A web society Ambiguous The language curtain Talk in Japanese Willing to go over during all the same meetings information many times The company is Japanese sacred Must never politeness lose face
  29. 29. LATIN AMERICA Geographic & Environment Spanish  Love of space  Optimism bordering on arrogance  Idealism  Impatience with  Histrionic European caution  Emphasized status  Isolationism  Art of communication  Lack of international  Fatalism experience  Touchy & Sensitive Indian  Uncertainty about future  Masculinity  Attachment to the land  More interested in people  Sense of fatalism than regulation  Compassion  Unrelated law & life  Resentment against exploitation  Imitation  Fear of the unknown
  30. 30. Achieving Empathy – Weapons for Empathy EMPATHY is based on accepting differences and building on these in a positive manner. Constantly trying to see thins from the other’s culture/point of view!  Tact  Humor  Sensitivity  Flexible  Compromise  Politeness  Calm  Warmth  Preparedness for discussion  Patience  Will to clarify objectives  Observation of other side’s protocol  Care to avoid irritants  Careful listening  Respect of confidentiality  Inspiration of trust
  31. 31. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at hora_t@sianuonline.com www.SinauOnline.com @ Tjitra, 2010 31