Relationship, Love and other Social Behaviors


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Relationship, Love and other Social Behaviors in Cross-cultural Perspective. A Presentation summary based on the book from Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Relationship, Love and other Social Behaviors

  1. 1. David Matsumoto & Linda Juang Relationship & other Social Behaviors: Culture and Psychology Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth. Zhou Nan & Dr. Hora Tjitra
  2. 2. Cultural differences in social behaviors ( ) Ingroup & Outgroup Relationship Cultural Attributions Aggression Differences In Social Behaviors Interpersonal Conformity, Attraction, Compliance, Love&Intercultural Obedience Marriage & Cooperation 2
  3. 3. In-Group and Out-Group relationship ( ) Classify everyone in our Ingroup world Outgroup some degree of familiarity, lack of familiarity, intimacy and intimacy and trust trust negative feelings of hostility feelings of closeness aggression, aloofness or bond with common superiority friendship or relationships no such bond, no special or goals relationship with us Forgas and Bond (1985) & Harrison, Stewart, Myambo, Teveraishe(1995) Cultural differences in the meaning of those relationships produces real, observable differences in the behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of the individual. 3
  4. 4. Ingroup and Outgroup relationship ( ) Self–Ingroup and Self–Outgroup Relationship Differences as a Function of Individualism and Collectivism People have more ingroups. People are not as attached to any single ingroup, because there are numerous ingroups to which they can be attached. Individualistic Cultures Survival of the individuals and the society is more dependent on the successful and effective functioning of individuals rather than groups. People make relatively fewer distinctions between ingroups and outgroups People have fewer ingroups People are very attached to the ingroups to which they belong. Collectivistic Cultures Survival of the individuals and the society is more dependent on the successful and effective People make greater distinctions between ingroup and outgroup others. 4
  5. 5. Person Perception ( ) Appearance Stereotypes Person perception Selectivity Schemas Social schemas: Cognitive schemas Organized clusters of ideas Conceptual frameworks about categories of social that people use to make events and people that have sense of the world and been shown to influence people around them. person perceptions 5
  6. 6. Three Hypothesis about Interpersonal Attraction in the US ( ) The hypothesis about love relationships that suggests that Matching people of approximately equal physical characteristics are likely to select each other as partners. The hypothesis about love relationships that suggests that people similar in age, race, religion, social class, education, Similarity intelligence, attitudes, and physical attractiveness tend to form intimate relationships. The hypothesis about love relationships that suggests Reciprocity that people tend to like others who like them. 6
  7. 7. Interpersonal Attraction, Love, and Intimacy across Cultures ( ) In Sternberg's theory, passionate love, intimacy and commitment are three factors of love. Romantic Consummate Infatuation Love love Although there may be cross-cultural differences in views about love and intimacy, there may be something universal about how we express ourselves, particularly our anger, that can help resolve or perpetuate conflicts in those types of relationships. 7
  8. 8. Intercultural Marriages ( ) In many ways, intercultural marriages are the prime example of intercultural relationships. Successful Intercultural Marriages flexible compromising commitment 8
  9. 9. Culture and Attribution ( ) Internal Attribution Frequently Frequently Seldom Consistency Distinctiveness Consensus Seldom Seldom Frequently External Attribution 9
  10. 10. Culture and Attribution ( ) Fundamental An attributional bias to explain the behavior of others using attribution internal attributions but explain our own behaviors using error external attributions. Self-serving The tendency to attribute our successes to personal factors bias and our failures to situational factors. Defensive The tendency to blame victims for their misfortune. attributions Cultural differences in attributions are especially important in furthering our understanding of intercultural interactions. If we leave room for the influence of cultural factors in our attributions of others’ behavior as well as our own, we will have taken an important step toward improving intercultural understanding and relationships. 10
  11. 11. Culture and Aggression ( ) Aggressive tendencies, attitudes, and norms differ across cultures, and that these differences are firmly established at a relatively early Cross-cultural age. research has shown At least some aspects of aggression, such as sex differences and attitudes concerning acceptance, may be similar across cultures. which specific aspects of aggression are similar across cultures, We do not know and which are different and other. Further Address these issues, going beyond documenting orientation cultural similarities and differences in aggression 11
  12. 12. Culture and Conformity, Compliance, Obedience, and Cooperation( ) Yielding to real or imagined social pressure. Conformity Yielding to social pressure in one’s public behavior, Compliance even though one’s private beliefs may not have changed. A form of compliance that occurs when people follow Obedience direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority. Cooperation People’s ability to work together toward common goals. 12
  13. 13. Cross-Cultural Research on Conformity and Compliance ( ) Negative feelings are firmly rooted in American individualistic culture. It then follows that conformity, obedience, and compliance are viewed negatively in American culture. Many other cultures foster more collectivistic, group- oriented values. In those cultures, concepts of conformity, obedience, and compliance enjoy much higher status and a positive orientation. 13
  14. 14. Culture and Obedience ( ) why the best-known studies of conformity and obedience conducted in the United States are so negative in their orientation? Have any studies been conducted by American social psychologists that might show positive outcomes of conformity, compliance, or obedience? If not, perhaps we need to examine the possible biases of American social scientists in approaching these topics. 14
  15. 15. Culture and Cooperation ( ) It seems that conforming or cooperating occurs within a context of recognizing the possible ramifications and consequences of nonconforming or noncooperating, and future studies should take into account what these ramifications are. It may be that, given equivalent consequences, people’s conformity or cooperation will be more similar than different across cultures. 15
  16. 16. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at @ Tjitra, 2010 16