Indigenous,Cultural,And Cross Cultural Psychology1


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Indigenous,Cultural,And Cross Cultural Psychology1

  1. 1. Indigenous,cultural,and cross-cultural psychology: A theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological analysis By: Uichol Kim Presentor: Jingyan Ding
  2. 2. Guideline • Introduction • Analysis of culture • Ecology and cultural adaptation • Epistemology • East Asian perspective • Phenomenology • Conculsion
  3. 3. Introduction • Three approaches attempt to explain cultural differences can be identified: – Universalist • Aims to discover abstract, nomothetic, and general laws of human functioning-----etic approach – Contextualist • Point out that many theories are ethnocentric, biased, and culture-bound-----emic approach – Integrationist • Integrate the context and content
  4. 4. • Two types of indigenous psychologies – Indigenization from without • Involves transporting psychological theories, concepts, and methods and modifying them to fit the local cultural context.-----external imposition – Indigenization from within • Theories, concepts and methods are developed internally and indigenous information is considered to be a primary source of knowledge.- a bottom-up
  5. 5. Analysis of culture • To learn about our own culture or another culture, we typically examine cultural products, and psychological constructs. • In order to gain deeper understanding of a culture, we can study organized bodies of knowledge such as history, philosophy, language, customs, and folkways.
  6. 6. • Two approaches to understanding culture – In cross-cultural psychology approach • researchers became interested in examining the influence of culture on behavior. • Culture is treated as a quasi-independent variable and behavior as a dependent variable.
  7. 7. – In the indigenous psychologies approach • Culture is an emergent property of individuals and groups interacting with their natural and human environment. • Culture is defined as a rubric of patterned variables. • Differences in cultures exist because we have focused on and developed different aspects of our environment and attached different meanings and values to them.
  8. 8. • Understanding a culture from within – Two types of knowledge • Analytical, semantic, and declarative • Phenomenological, episodic, and procedural – A transaction model of causality
  9. 9. – Separation of different levels of analysis • Physiological • Psychological • Culture
  10. 10. – Three key aspects to investigate culture, • Context • Epistemology • Phenomenology
  11. 11. bottom up
  12. 12. Ecology and cultural adaptation • Ecology refers to the total pattern of relationships between life forms and their environment, and includes the natural environment that humans share with other living organisms. • Various collective responses appeared in reaction to the differing ecological pressures.
  13. 13. • Berry(1976)found that ecological context has a significant effect on types of cultures that emerge, which in turn affect individual functioning, namely cognitive style. • Social and cultural change in ecological context – See a table
  14. 14. period Before sixteen century After sixteen century Economic mode Subsistence economies Market economies People work for food, and other living materials wages labor Serfs and peasants workers Skill and knowledge Passed down from one generation to another Result in production and distribution Socialization practices Trust, cooperation, and conservatism Social intelligence, technological intelligence Goal of socialization Survival , subsistence Development of cognitive and linguistic skills relationship Long-standing relationship of trust and obligation Full of unrelated strangers Collective action Family, clan, tribe Class, union
  15. 15. Epistemology • The development and transformation of Western cultures can trace the artwork. period Medieval Renaissance Center of the picture Jesus, the Virgin Mary, some other holy person commoners periphery commoners Expression of emotions no Yes Individual Not important or valued Believe their capability body sinful beautiful
  16. 16. • Religion , culture and science – Descartes concluded that it is through rationality and reason that this knowledge can be obtained with certainty. – He found that through rationality and reason he could understand not only himself, but also natural scientific laws and mathematical laws.
  17. 17. I thank therefore I am
  18. 18. – He influenced and modified the Judaeo- Christian worldview. • separated our bodies from the mind. • Created a duality and dichotomy between mind and body, good and bad, light and darkness, justice and deceit, and heaven and earth. • Modern Western motives ,television dramas, and novels reflect this basic struggle between good and bad
  19. 19. • Western liberalism
  20. 20. East Asian perspective • Art – Human beings are placed in the context of the natural and social environment. – Human beings are considered to be part of nature in Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoistic and Shamanistic epistemologies. – Harmony is the most important value since it integrates human beings with nature, spirits, and with other individuals.
  21. 21. • Confucianism
  22. 22. • Limitations on using Confucianism to explain behavior – It can be used as a descriptive model, but it should not be used as an explanatory model. – There are blind spots and biased in all philosophical traditions. – the lay public may not be fully aware of basic Confucian concepts such as ren,yi, li ,zhi, and xin.
  23. 23. – There can be competing philosophies and worldviews within a particular culture. These have influenced each another and have been integrated and blended into a synthetic form.
  24. 24. Phenomenology • How the ideas contained in native philosophies are understood, used, and modified in everyday life? • They need to become integrated with the phenomenological lives of individuals. • The greatest variation across cultures exists in the area of phenomenology.
  25. 25. Summary and conclusion • Although science can provide the most accurate understanding of the world, it can also blind and limit our understanding. – Researchers in the field of psychology imposed the natural sciences model to study human beings. But the natural sciences paradigm distorted psychological phenomena.
  26. 26. – Psychological theories were assumed to be universal. – Expert or professional knowledge have imposed on the lay public.
  27. 27. • The indigenous psychologies approach advocates – liberation from these external impositions and experience of phenomenon as an insider. – A linkage of humanities with social science.
  28. 28. Question?