Indigenous,Cultural,And Cross Cultural Psychology1
A theoretical, conceptual, and
By: Uichol Kim
Presentor: Jingyan Ding
• Analysis of culture
• Ecology and cultural adaptation
• East Asian perspective
• Three approaches attempt to explain
cultural differences can be identified:
• Aims to discover abstract, nomothetic, and general
laws of human functioning-----etic approach
• Point out that many theories are ethnocentric,
biased, and culture-bound-----emic approach
• Integrate the context and content
• Two types of indigenous psychologies
– Indigenization from without
• Involves transporting psychological theories,
concepts, and methods and modifying them to fit
the local cultural context.-----external imposition
– Indigenization from within
• Theories, concepts and methods are developed
internally and indigenous information is considered
to be a primary source of knowledge.- a bottom-up
Analysis of culture
• To learn about our own culture or another
culture, we typically examine cultural
products, and psychological constructs.
• In order to gain deeper understanding of a
culture, we can study organized bodies of
knowledge such as history, philosophy,
language, customs, and folkways.
• Two approaches to understanding culture
– In cross-cultural psychology approach
• researchers became interested in examining the
influence of culture on behavior.
• Culture is treated as a quasi-independent variable
and behavior as a dependent variable.
– In the indigenous psychologies approach
• Culture is an emergent property of individuals and
groups interacting with their natural and human
• Culture is defined as a rubric of patterned
• Differences in cultures exist because we have
focused on and developed different aspects of our
environment and attached different meanings and
values to them.
• Understanding a culture from within
– Two types of knowledge
• Analytical, semantic, and declarative
• Phenomenological, episodic, and procedural
– A transaction model of causality
– Separation of different levels of analysis
– Three key aspects to investigate culture,
Ecology and cultural adaptation
• Ecology refers to the total pattern of
relationships between life forms and their
environment, and includes the natural
environment that humans share with other
• Various collective responses appeared in
reaction to the differing ecological
• Berry(1976)found that ecological context
has a significant effect on types of cultures
that emerge, which in turn affect individual
functioning, namely cognitive style.
• Social and cultural change in ecological
– See a table
period Before sixteen century After sixteen century
Economic mode Subsistence economies Market economies
People work for food, and other living
labor Serfs and peasants workers
Passed down from one
generation to another
Result in production
Trust, cooperation, and
Survival , subsistence Development of
cognitive and linguistic
relationship Long-standing relationship
of trust and obligation
Full of unrelated
Collective action Family, clan, tribe Class, union
• The development and transformation of Western
cultures can trace the artwork.
period Medieval Renaissance
Center of the
Jesus, the Virgin Mary, some
other holy person
Individual Not important or valued Believe their capability
body sinful beautiful
• Religion , culture and science
– Descartes concluded that it is through
rationality and reason that this knowledge can
be obtained with certainty.
– He found that through rationality and reason
he could understand not only himself, but also
natural scientific laws and mathematical laws.
– He influenced and modified the Judaeo-
• separated our bodies from the mind.
• Created a duality and dichotomy between mind
and body, good and bad, light and darkness,
justice and deceit, and heaven and earth.
• Modern Western motives ,television dramas, and
novels reflect this basic struggle between good
East Asian perspective
– Human beings are placed in the context of the
natural and social environment.
– Human beings are considered to be part of
nature in Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoistic
and Shamanistic epistemologies.
– Harmony is the most important value since it
integrates human beings with nature, spirits,
and with other individuals.
• Limitations on using Confucianism to
– It can be used as a descriptive model, but it
should not be used as an explanatory model.
– There are blind spots and biased in all
– the lay public may not be fully aware of basic
Confucian concepts such as ren,yi, li ,zhi, and
– There can be competing philosophies and
worldviews within a particular culture. These
have influenced each another and have been
integrated and blended into a synthetic form.
• How the ideas contained in native
philosophies are understood, used, and
modified in everyday life?
• They need to become integrated with the
phenomenological lives of individuals.
• The greatest variation across cultures
exists in the area of phenomenology.
Summary and conclusion
• Although science can provide the most
accurate understanding of the world, it can
also blind and limit our understanding.
– Researchers in the field of psychology
imposed the natural sciences model to study
human beings. But the natural sciences
paradigm distorted psychological phenomena.
– Psychological theories were assumed to be
– Expert or professional knowledge have
imposed on the lay public.
• The indigenous psychologies approach
– liberation from these external impositions and
experience of phenomenon as an insider.
– A linkage of humanities with social science.