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SOC 111 
Introduction to Anthropology 
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? 
Antropos+Logos 
(human)+(science) 
It is the science of 
human. 
Anthropology studies the whole of the human 
condition; past, present, future; biology,society, 
language, culture.
CULTURE 
• Traditions and customs, transmitted through 
learning, that form and guide the beliefs and 
behavior of the people exposed to them. 
• Anthropologists examines different 
societies and compares their cultures. 
They focus on the differences. 
• Children learn culture through enculturation.
CULTURE 
• Is everywhere when you are born. 
• How should we do things? 
• What is proper behavior for girls and boys? 
• What kind of work should men and women 
do? 
• What role should religion play? 
• What is right? 
• What is wrong?
GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
• The academic discipline of anthropology, also 
known as ‘four-field’ anthropology, includes: 
I. Sociocultural ( cultural anthropolohy) 
II. Archaeological 
III. Biological 
IV. Linguistics
GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
• Developed as scientific field in U.S. 
Early American anthropologists studying 
native peoples of North America 
combined studies of customs, social life, 
language and physical traits in the 19th 
century.
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
• Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains 
social and cultural similarities and differences. 
Ethnograpghy: fieldwork in a particular 
culture; provides an account of that 
community, society or culture. 
Ethnology: comparative, cross-cultural study 
of ethnographic data,society and culture.
TWO DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL 
ANTHROPOLOGY 
ETHNOGRAPHY ETHNOLOGY 
Requires fieldwork to 
collect data. 
Often descriptive 
Group/community specific 
Uses data collected by a 
series of researchers 
Usually synthetic 
Comparative/cross-cultural
ARCHAEOLOGİCAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
• The study of human behavior and cultural 
patterns and processes through the culture’s 
material remains 
Artifacts 
Garbage 
Burials 
Remains of structures
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
• The study of human biological variation in 
space 
Human evolution 
Human genetics 
Human growth and development 
Human biological plasticity 
Biology,evolution,behavior,and social life of 
monkeys,apes and other nonhuman primates.
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY 
• The study of language in its social and cultural 
context across space and time. 
Historical linguistics reconstruct ancient 
languages and study linguistic variation 
through time. 
Sociolinguistics investigates relationships 
between social and linguistic variation.
ANTHROPOLOGY 
• Is a science: a field of study that seeks reliable 
explanations with reference to the material 
and physical world. 
• APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: application of 
anthropological data, perspectives, theory, 
and methods to identify, assess and solve 
contemporary social problems.
THEORIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND 
EXPLANATIONS 
• THEORY: a set of ides formulated to 
explain something 
• ASSOCIATION: an observed relationship 
between two or more measured 
variables. 
• HYPOTHESES: suggested but yet 
unverified explanations
THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 
• Anthropology, a discipline of infinite 
curiosity about human beings. 
• Every part of the world containing human 
populations is of interest to 
anthropological study.
THE RELEVANCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 
• In order to understand humans, it is 
essential that we study humans in all 
times and places. 
• Anthropological studies can illustrate 
why other people are the way they are, 
both culturally and physically.

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Introduction to the Science of Humanity

  • 1. SOC 111 Introduction to Anthropology WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?
  • 2. WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? Antropos+Logos (human)+(science) It is the science of human. Anthropology studies the whole of the human condition; past, present, future; biology,society, language, culture.
  • 3. CULTURE • Traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. • Anthropologists examines different societies and compares their cultures. They focus on the differences. • Children learn culture through enculturation.
  • 4. CULTURE • Is everywhere when you are born. • How should we do things? • What is proper behavior for girls and boys? • What kind of work should men and women do? • What role should religion play? • What is right? • What is wrong?
  • 5. GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The academic discipline of anthropology, also known as ‘four-field’ anthropology, includes: I. Sociocultural ( cultural anthropolohy) II. Archaeological III. Biological IV. Linguistics
  • 6. GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY • Developed as scientific field in U.S. Early American anthropologists studying native peoples of North America combined studies of customs, social life, language and physical traits in the 19th century.
  • 7. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY • Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. Ethnograpghy: fieldwork in a particular culture; provides an account of that community, society or culture. Ethnology: comparative, cross-cultural study of ethnographic data,society and culture.
  • 8. TWO DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY ETHNOGRAPHY ETHNOLOGY Requires fieldwork to collect data. Often descriptive Group/community specific Uses data collected by a series of researchers Usually synthetic Comparative/cross-cultural
  • 9. ARCHAEOLOGİCAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture’s material remains Artifacts Garbage Burials Remains of structures
  • 10. BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of human biological variation in space Human evolution Human genetics Human growth and development Human biological plasticity Biology,evolution,behavior,and social life of monkeys,apes and other nonhuman primates.
  • 11. LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time. Historical linguistics reconstruct ancient languages and study linguistic variation through time. Sociolinguistics investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation.
  • 12. ANTHROPOLOGY • Is a science: a field of study that seeks reliable explanations with reference to the material and physical world. • APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems.
  • 13. THEORIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS • THEORY: a set of ides formulated to explain something • ASSOCIATION: an observed relationship between two or more measured variables. • HYPOTHESES: suggested but yet unverified explanations
  • 14. THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY • Anthropology, a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings. • Every part of the world containing human populations is of interest to anthropological study.
  • 15. THE RELEVANCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY • In order to understand humans, it is essential that we study humans in all times and places. • Anthropological studies can illustrate why other people are the way they are, both culturally and physically.