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What is anthropology

  1. 1. SOC 111 Introduction to Anthropology WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?
  2. 2. WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY? Antropos+Logos (human)+(science) It is the science of human. Anthropology studies the whole of the human condition; past, present, future; biology,society, language, culture.
  3. 3. CULTURE • Traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them. • Anthropologists examines different societies and compares their cultures. They focus on the differences. • Children learn culture through enculturation.
  4. 4. CULTURE • Is everywhere when you are born. • How should we do things? • What is proper behavior for girls and boys? • What kind of work should men and women do? • What role should religion play? • What is right? • What is wrong?
  5. 5. GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The academic discipline of anthropology, also known as ‘four-field’ anthropology, includes: I. Sociocultural ( cultural anthropolohy) II. Archaeological III. Biological IV. Linguistics
  6. 6. GENERAL ANTHROPOLOGY • Developed as scientific field in U.S. Early American anthropologists studying native peoples of North America combined studies of customs, social life, language and physical traits in the 19th century.
  7. 7. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY • Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences. Ethnograpghy: fieldwork in a particular culture; provides an account of that community, society or culture. Ethnology: comparative, cross-cultural study of ethnographic data,society and culture.
  8. 8. TWO DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY ETHNOGRAPHY ETHNOLOGY Requires fieldwork to collect data. Often descriptive Group/community specific Uses data collected by a series of researchers Usually synthetic Comparative/cross-cultural
  9. 9. ARCHAEOLOGİCAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture’s material remains Artifacts Garbage Burials Remains of structures
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of human biological variation in space Human evolution Human genetics Human growth and development Human biological plasticity Biology,evolution,behavior,and social life of monkeys,apes and other nonhuman primates.
  11. 11. LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY • The study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time. Historical linguistics reconstruct ancient languages and study linguistic variation through time. Sociolinguistics investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation.
  12. 12. ANTHROPOLOGY • Is a science: a field of study that seeks reliable explanations with reference to the material and physical world. • APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess and solve contemporary social problems.
  13. 13. THEORIES, ASSOCIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS • THEORY: a set of ides formulated to explain something • ASSOCIATION: an observed relationship between two or more measured variables. • HYPOTHESES: suggested but yet unverified explanations
  14. 14. THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY • Anthropology, a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings. • Every part of the world containing human populations is of interest to anthropological study.
  15. 15. THE RELEVANCE OF ANTHROPOLOGY • In order to understand humans, it is essential that we study humans in all times and places. • Anthropological studies can illustrate why other people are the way they are, both culturally and physically.