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Work and Organizational Behavior


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Presenation summart based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.

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Work and Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. David Matsumoto & Linda Juang Work & Organizational Behavior: Culture and Psychology Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth. Xu Yunchun & Dr. Hora Tjitra
  2. 2. Global Raise Awareness of Culture and Organizations • The workplace now includes unprecedented numbers of multinational and international corporations. • This internationalization of business brings with it more intercultural issues and challenges.
  3. 3. Organizational Culture & Climate Organizational • A dynamic system of rules shared culture among members of an organization –attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors. • Three levels of organizational culture:individual,intraorganizational, and interorganizational. • A shared perception of “the way thing Organizational s are around here” –organizational climate policies, practices, and procedures. • Can be best understood as a manifestation of organizational culture.
  4. 4. Different Dimension Leads to Different Type Different Different Dimensions Type Complexity Latin Type Anglo-Saxon Formalization Type Third World Centralization Type
  5. 5. Cultural Differences in Work-Related Values Power Uncertainty Distance Avoidance Four major Dimensions Individualism Masculinity -Collectivism --Hofstede
  6. 6. Bond and Hofstede’s Confucian Dynamism • A fifth dimension, may be especially important for Asian companies and cultures. • Principles and values: - Unequal status relationships lead to a stable society. - The family is typical of all social organizations. - Virtue in life consists of working hard, acquiring useful skills and as much education as possible, not being a spendthrift, and persevering when faced with difficult tasks.
  7. 7. Other Research on Organizational Culture Trompenaars Smith, Dugan& (1993) Trompenaars (1996) - Universalism &particularism - Achievement &ascription - Individualism &collectivism - Individualism &collectivism - Neutral &emotional - Combination included the - Specific &diffuse first two and power distance, - Achievement &ascription confucian dynamism, - Time orientation egalitarianism, and - Attitude toward the integration. environment
  8. 8. Culture and the Meaning of Work collectivistic individualistic - End to see people around them - Tend to foster a view of self as as fundamentally interrelated Independent, unique, and with themselves. autonomous from others. - The bonds between themselves - Have an easier time separating and their company are strong. themselves from their jobs. - See work as fulfilling an - Think work simply as a means obligation to a larger group, to accumulate money and movement to another is less. make a living.
  9. 9. Culture, Motivation and Productivity • Social loafing - Individual productivity tends to decline in larger groups. - Reduction in efficiency and effort may be two factors to contribute to this phenomenon. • Social striving: - Working in a group enhanced individual performance. - Exist in more collectivistic culture, such as China and Japan. - American increase their interest in organizational and management styles of
  10. 10. Cultural Differences in the Definition of Leadership and Management Definition Leadership is influence between a leader and followers to attain group, organizational, or societal goals. Individualistic culture Individualistic culture (America) (India) - expect leaders to have vision - the optimal leadership style is authority and power and to give definition between a totally participative tasks have meaning in a larger picture. and totally authoritative style. - make a clear distinction between - distinction between work and work and personal life. boundaries personal life is fuzzy and blurred.
  11. 11. Culture and Decision-Making Processes Democratic Every person involved has a say in the decision, usually by way of a vote. Oligarchy Structure characterized by rule- or decision- making power of a few. Nemawashi Consider consultation about the proposal on broad basis, and consensus is achieve before implement.
  12. 12. International Negotiation The need of negotiation with companies in other countries to obtain resources, sell products increased. American: Japanese: - language: hear the word ”yes” - language: use the word “yes” as (hai) as a regulator, interpret it to a conversation regulator, mean “yes”. signaling that you are listening. - entertainment: used to sitting - entertainment: want to have down at the table and hammering dinner, have drinks and play golf. out a deal.
  13. 13. International Assignments Challenge Opportunity • lifestyle • new skills and new ways of doing work. • Customs • make friends • Behavior • new language and • children’s education customs
  14. 14. Working with an increasingly Diverse Workforce Population problems advantages - Ways of doing - Depends on the business openness of the host organization to learn - Transfer the Japanese management model to the American milieu - On the goodwill and intent - Handling disagreement: based on PD and IC - Engage in a mutually beneficial partnership.
  15. 15. Thanks You Any comments & questions are welcome Contact me at @ Tjitra, 2010 15