David Matsumoto & Linda Juang
Work & Organizational Behavior:
Culture and Psychology
Based on: Matsumoto, D. & Juang, L. (2007). Culture and
Psychology (4th Ed.). Wadsworth.
Xu Yunchun & Dr. Hora Tjitra
Global Raise Awareness of Culture and Organizations
• The workplace now includes
unprecedented numbers of
• This internationalization of
business brings with it more
intercultural issues and
Organizational Culture & Climate
Organizational • A dynamic system of rules shared
culture among members of an organization
–attitudes, values, beliefs, norms,
• Three levels of organizational
• A shared perception of “the way thing
s are around here” –organizational
policies, practices, and procedures.
• Can be best understood as a
manifestation of organizational culture.
Different Dimension Leads to Different Type
Complexity Latin Type
Cultural Differences in Work-Related Values
Bond and Hofstede’s Confucian Dynamism
• A fifth dimension, may be especially important for
Asian companies and cultures.
• Principles and values:
- Unequal status relationships lead to a stable
- The family is typical of all social organizations.
- Virtue in life consists of working hard, acquiring
useful skills and as much education as
possible, not being a spendthrift, and persevering
when faced with difficult tasks.
Other Research on Organizational Culture
Trompenaars Smith, Dugan&
- Universalism &particularism - Achievement &ascription
- Individualism &collectivism - Individualism &collectivism
- Neutral &emotional - Combination included the
- Specific &diffuse first two and power distance,
- Achievement &ascription confucian dynamism,
- Time orientation egalitarianism, and
- Attitude toward the integration.
Culture and the Meaning of Work
- End to see people around them - Tend to foster a view of self as
as fundamentally interrelated Independent, unique, and
with themselves. autonomous from others.
- The bonds between themselves - Have an easier time separating
and their company are strong. themselves from their jobs.
- See work as fulfilling an - Think work simply as a means
obligation to a larger group, to accumulate money and
movement to another is less. make a living.
• Social loaﬁng
- Individual productivity tends to decline
in larger groups.
- Reduction in efficiency and effort may
be two factors to contribute to this
• Social striving:
- Working in a group enhanced individual
- Exist in more collectivistic culture, such as
China and Japan.
- American increase their interest in
organizational and management styles of
Cultural Differences in the Definition
of Leadership and Management
Leadership is influence between a leader and followers to
attain group, organizational, or societal goals.
Individualistic culture Individualistic culture
- expect leaders to have vision - the optimal leadership style is
authority and power and to give
definition between a totally participative
tasks have meaning in a larger
picture. and totally authoritative style.
- make a clear distinction between - distinction between work and
work and personal life. boundaries personal life is fuzzy and blurred.
Culture and Decision-Making Processes
Democratic Every person involved has a say in the
decision, usually by way of a vote.
Oligarchy Structure characterized by rule- or decision-
making power of a few.
Nemawashi Consider consultation about the proposal on
broad basis, and consensus is achieve before
The need of negotiation with companies in other
countries to obtain resources, sell products increased.
- language: hear the word ”yes” - language: use the word “yes” as
(hai) as a regulator, interpret it to a conversation regulator,
mean “yes”. signaling that you are listening.
- entertainment: used to sitting - entertainment: want to have
down at the table and hammering dinner, have drinks and play golf.
out a deal.
• lifestyle • new skills and new ways of
• make friends
• new language and
• children’s education customs
Working with an increasingly Diverse Workforce Population
- Ways of doing - Depends on the
business openness of the
host organization to
- Transfer the Japanese
management model to the
American milieu - On the goodwill and
- Handling disagreement:
based on PD and IC - Engage in a
Any comments & questions
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@ Tjitra, 2010