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Cloning
 

Cloning

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    Cloning Cloning Presentation Transcript

    • Cloning Dr. Abdelsalam Talafha, DVM Diplomate, American College of Theriogenologists
    • Cloning
      • Production of genetically identical individuals that have identical nuclear DNA
    • Cloning Technologies
      • Recombinant DNA technology
        • DNA cloning
        • Molecular cloning
        • Gene cloning
      • Reproductive cloning
      • Therapeutic cloning
        • Embryo cloning
    • DNA Cloning
      • Transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid
      • Plasmids
        • Self-replicating extra-chromosomal circular DNA molecules, distinct from normal bacterial genome
    • DNA Cloning - Uses
      • Gene therapy
      • Genetic engineering of organisms
      • Genome sequencing
    • Reproductive Cloning
      • A technology used to generate an animal that has same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal
      • Dolly
      • How Is Reproductive Cloning Done?
        • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
    • SCNT
      • Starts with removal of polar body and chromosomes from an oocyte
        • Enucleated oocyte
      • Donor cell then inserted into perivitelline space of enucleated oocyte
    • SCNT
      • Oocyte and donor cell are fused and activated by an electric pulse to begin cell division
      • Developed embryos transferred to surrogate females
      • Birth of an individual
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    • SCNT
      • Sources of somatic cells
        • Cell from individual
        • Cells grown in culture
        • Frozen tissue
    • Therapeutic Cloning
      • Production of human embryos for use in research
      • Goal
        • To harvest stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease
    • Therapeutic Cloning
      • Stem cells
        • Cells have ability to divide and give rise to both specialized cells and more stem cells
      • Derived from
        • Adults
        • Preimplantation embryos (Embryonic stem cells)
    • Stem Cells
      • Replacement cells to treat
        • Heart disease
        • Alzheimer's
        • Cancer
        • Diabetes
        • Parkinson's disease
        • Spinal cord injury
    • SCNT- Potential Biotechnological Applications
      • Harvesting donor cells from transgenic animal
      • Genetic modification of cultured donor cells prior to nuclear transfer
        • Producing genetically modified cloned offspring
    • Genetically Modified Cloned Offspring
      • Biotechnological applications
        • Production of pharmaceuticals
        • Xenotransplantation
        • Study and eradication of human disease
        • Improvement of livestock
    • Production Of Pharmaceuticals
      • Gene expressing human coagulation factor IX introduced into ovine fetal fibroblasts
      • linked to another gene with a high level of expression in mammary gland
      • Protein expressed in milk
    • Production Of Pharmaceuticals
      • Insulin for diabetes
      • Interferon for viral infections
      • Tissue plasminogen activator (which dissolves blood clots)
    • Xenotransplantation
      • Aim:
        • To develop animals whose organs will not cause an immunological response and destroy transplanted tissue when transferred to humans
    • Xenotransplantation
      • Pig organs
        • Hearts, lungs, kidneys, liver
        • Neural tissue for Parkinson's
        • Islets cells for diabetes patients
    • Study Human Disease
      • Sheep model to investigate human cystic fibrosis
      • Cloned sheep used for drug testing and to evaluate new therapies
    • Improvement Of Livestock
      • Cloning animal with excellent traits
      • Production of a large number of clones from high quality animals
        • Allow overall genetic improvement of herd
      • Repopulate endangered animals
    • Animal Cloning
      • Sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and mice
      • Cloning efforts in rabbits, rats, cats, dogs, and horses are ongoing
    • Risks Of Cloning
      • Reproductive cloning expensive and highly inefficient
      • > 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring
    • Risks Of Cloning
      • High rate of fetal loss during pregnancy
      • Compromised immune function
      • Higher rates of infection
      • Tumor growth
      • Early neonatal death
      • Abnormally large at birth
      • Die mysteriously
    • Risks Of Cloning
      • Cloned fetuses have abnormalities
        • Abnormal placentation
        • Pregnancy toxemia
        • Hydroallantois
    • Should Humans Be Cloned?
      • Due to
        • Inefficiency of animal cloning
        • Lack of understanding about reproductive cloning
        • Risks of cloning
    • Should Humans Be Cloned?
      • Unethical to attempt to clone humans
        • Same problems would be expected in human cloning
        • We do not know how cloning could impact mental development
    • Should Humans Be Cloned?
      • High risk to health of fetus or infant and mother
      • Psychological risks for mother as a result of
        • Late spontaneous abortions
        • Birth of a stillborn child
        • Birth of a child with severe health problems