Raffles Institute_Building construction framing systems

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Raffles Institute Mongolia
Module: Building technology and documentation
Lecturer: Sandra Draskovic
Term: April 2013

Published in: Education

Raffles Institute_Building construction framing systems

  1. 1. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012BUILDING TECHNOLOGY &CONSTRUCTIONMArch. Dipl.-Ing. Arch.Interior Design Lecturer IDSandra DRASKOVICRaffles International Institute
  2. 2. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute MODULE AIMS:1. To learn the basic knowledge of load-bearing systems, buildingelements, finishes, standard and codes2. To understand the content and purpose of constructiondocumentation and shop drawings3. To learn how to prepare drawing documentation for tenders, biddingand construction4. To communicate accurately using construction graphic symbols andstandards5. To learn how to chose correct load-bearing system for proposeddesign solution and enable its‘ buildability6. To acquaint knowledge about construction elements and building systemspossibilities as base for creative construction solutions7. To acquire knowledge about technical documentation and levels ofdetailing in various drawings (from less detailed to more accurate)8. To get the basic understanding of dimensions of load-bearing systemsand elements.
  3. 3. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute WEEKLY SCHEDULEWEEK 1: LOAD-BEARING SYSTEMS, TYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONS,LOADS, FOUNDATIONS, FACTORS & ASPECTSWEEK 2: FOUNDATIONSWEEK 3: ROOFSA 1: MODEL MAKING, DRAWINGSWEEK 4: OPENINGS: WINDOWS, OPENINGS: DOORSWEEK 5: WALLS, FLOORS,A 2: CROSS-SECTION HOUSE FRAMINGWEEK 6: STAIRCASE, ENTRANCEA 3: HOUSE SECTIONS WITH WALLS, FLOORS, CEILINGSWEEK 7: CEILINGSA 4: DOORS AND WINDOWS SPECIFICATIONWEEK 8: FINISHES AND MATERIALS FLOORS AND WALLSWEEK 9: DETAILSA 5: STAIRCASEWEEK 10: CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATIONA 6: RESIDENTIAL PROJECT DOCUMENTATIONWEEK 11: CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATIONEXAM
  4. 4. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute BUILDING ELEMENTS1.FOUNDATIONS : foundation walls and foundationfoot, piles system ...2.VERTICAL ELEMENTS: walls, columns3.HORIZONTAL ELEMENTS: beams, joists, floor construction4.SPECIAL ELEMENTS: staircase, chimney5.OPENINGS: windows, doors6.ROOF SYSTEMS roof construction
  5. 5. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute SYSTEMroof systemwallsstaircasewindowfloor systemsfoundation
  6. 6. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute SYSTEMroof finishesroof systemwall systemwindow & doorsfloor systemsfoundationfloor finishes
  7. 7. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute LOADS1. STATIC LOADS:A static load is the effect of gravity onan object or structure and appliedslowly to structure.vertical loads: snow loadsaccumulated on the roof, dead loadsby construction elements by itself,rain water accumulation, poolequipment, underground Hydrostaticand soil pressure etclive loads: water tanks, furnitureweights and occupancy equipment,weight of people2. DYNAMIC LOADS:A dynamic load is the forces thatmove or change when acting on astructure.rapid kinetic changes: wind loads,earthquake, movable tracks orvibration equipment, sudden forcesand loads3. IMPACT LOADS:
  8. 8. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute LOADSSTATIC LOADS: DYNAMIC LOADS:
  9. 9. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM
  10. 10. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUMDISTRIBUTION OF LOADS• CONCENTRATED LOADSacts on a small areaor particular poin os a supportingstructure element: beam, column and it is transfered to itsfooting.2. UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LOADis a load of uniformly distributed magnitude extendedover the length of area of suppoting structure element:slab, beam, wall and transfered to it foundation.
  11. 11. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM
  12. 12. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM010203COLUMNSLABEXTERIOR WALL PANELBOUTIQUE HOTEL NOBEL, BELGRADEDesign team: A.Zatezalo, C.Ristic, S.Draskovic…
  13. 13. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM010203
  14. 14. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute MODULE AIMS:
  15. 15. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute MODULE AIMS:
  16. 16. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM0103021. VERTICAL PANELS X-AXIS2. VERTICAL WALLS Y-AXIS3. DIAGONAL STEEL CABLES ANDCONCRETE PANELS
  17. 17. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL EQUILIBRIUM1. Structural lateral stability – balance offorces2. Diagonal steel frames to adjust dynamicloads3. Dynamic forces on high-risebuildings
  18. 18. ENCLOUSUREANDPROTECTION• Wall, floor,ceiling finishes• Roof cladding• Thermoinsulation• Soundinsulation• Hydroinsulation• Fire insulation• etcRAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSBUILDINGELEMENTSLOAD-BEARING• Foundations• Walls• Columns• Beams• Joists• Floorconstruction• Roofs• StaircaseNON-BEARING• Partition walls• Windows• Doors• etc
  19. 19. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSWHEN WE SPEAK OF ARCHITECTURE AS ART OFBUILDING, WE SHALL CONSIDER FOLLOWINGCONCEPTUAL SYSTEMS OF ORDER:1.The definition scale, proportion, organization of theinterior space of the building2.Human activities in the space, ergonomic needs, theirsize and dimension3.Access to the horzontal and vertical paths of movementthrough the interior of building4.The aesthetic qualities of a building:shape, form, light,space size, materials, textures, colors, patterns etc5.The building as integral component within natural andbuilt environment6.The building as coherent structure of its elements
  20. 20. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSELEMENTS OF BUILDINGS:1.STRUCTURAL LOAD-BEARING SYSTEM:substructure (foundations), superstructure (verticalelements: walls, columns, pillars, diagonal earthquakesupport), horizontal extensions (slabs, beams, rings),roof structure2.ENCLOSURE SYSTEM:exterior walls, roof clading and covering,doors,windows, interior walls and partitions tosubdivide interior space into spatial units1.MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, HEATING, LIGHTING,WATER SUPPLY, WATER SEWERAGE, VENTILATION,COOLING, FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
  21. 21. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSWALLS AND SLABS SYSTEM:A. Longitudinal: one way ofsystems of joists or slabs,walls or columnsB. Transversal: two-way systemsof beams and slabs – moreeffective for square baysC. Two-way slab: supported byfour columntsD. Combined: load bearingwalls, slabs or joists.CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS:• FOUNDATIONS• WALLS• SLABS• REINFORCED CONCRETERINGDBCCDCDCCC
  22. 22. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
  23. 23. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSCOLUMNS, JOISTS AND BEAMSA.System of beams, joistsand slabs (solid, hollow core, slabs with tees)that transfer trusses to columnsand foundationsB. Frame system
  24. 24. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
  25. 25. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STABILITY OF SYSTEMA horizontal concrete ring• connection of horizontal and vertical elements• at the level of flooring construction and slabs• staircases platform and landing• MIN 19x19 cmB vertical concrete ring• connection of two walls• every corners• beginning / end of wall• distance 5-6 m• MIN 19x19 cm
  26. 26. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSBBMAX span between concrete rings is 5-6 mA
  27. 27. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STATIC SCHEMECONCRETE SOLID SLAB AND WALLS CONCRETE SLAB WITH TEES ANDWALLS
  28. 28. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STATIC SCHEME - STAIRCASESCONTINUAL CONCRETE SLAB CONCRETE SLAB AND BEAMS
  29. 29. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute SPAN OF ELEMENTSTIMBER:Planks: 0-5 mBeams (8x16 cm): 0-8 mJoists: 30-60 cmLaminated beams: up to 22 mSTEEL:Decking: 0-5 mWide flange beams: 0-18 mOpen web joists 0-28 mREINFORCED CONCRETE:One-way slab: 0-5 (6) mJoist slab: 0-12 mPrecast planks: 0-12 mPrecast tees: up to 25 (30) mFlat plates: 0-8 mTwo way slabs and beams: 0-12 mWaffle slabs: 0-16 mWaffle slabsTwo way slabs

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