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Raffles Institute_Foundations

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Raffles Institute Mongolia
Module: Building technology and documentation
Lecturer: Sandra Draskovic
Term: April 2013

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Raffles Institute_Foundations

  1. 1. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012FOUNDATIONSMArch. Dipl.-Ing. Arch.Interior Design Lecturer IDSandra DRASKOVICRaffles International Institute
  2. 2. October 12© Draskovic 2012FOUNDATIONSRaffles International Institute
  3. 3. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute WEEKLY SCHEDULEWEEK 1: LOAD-BEARING SYSTEMS, TYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONS,LOADS, FOUNDATIONS, FACTORS & ASPECTSWEEK 2: FOUNDATIONS, ROOFSWEEK 3: WALLS, FLOORSA 1: MODEL MAKING, DRAWINGSWEEK 4: OPENINGS: WINDOWSWEEK 5: OPENINGS: DOORSA 2: CROSS-SECTION HOUSE FRAMINGWEEK 6: STAIRCASE, ENTRANCEA 3: HOUSE SECTIONS WITH WALLS, FLOORS, CEILINGSWEEK 7: CEILINGSA 4: DOORS AND WINDOWS SPECIFICATIONWEEK 8: FINISHES AND MATERIALSWEEK 9: DETAILSA 5: STAIRCASEWEEK 10: CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATIONA 6: RESIDENTIAL PROJECT DOCUMENTATIONWEEK 11: CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATIONEXAM
  4. 4. ENCLOUSUREANDPROTECTION• Wall, floor,ceiling finishes• Roof cladding• Thermoinsulation• Soundinsulation• Hydroinsulation• Fire insulation• etcRAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSBUILDINGELEMENTSLOAD-BEARING• Foundations• Walls• Columns• Beams• Joists• Floorconstruction• Roofs• StaircaseNON-BEARING• Partition walls• Windows• Doors• etc
  5. 5. “Foundation is thelowest division of abuilding, constructedpartly or wholly belowthe surface of theground.”~ Francis D K Ching
  6. 6. October 12© Draskovic 2012RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute ELEMENTS OF CONSTRUCTIONroof systemwallsstaircasewindowfloor systemsfoundation
  7. 7. RAFFLES October 2012Raffles International Institute LOADSSTATIC LOADS: DYNAMIC LOADS:CONSOLIDATION OF LOADS AND STRESSES
  8. 8. Raffles International Institute FOUNDATION MATERIALSTRENGTH OF MATERIALis measured by its power to resist tensile & compressive force.• Foundation is subject to compressive forces.• Materials used must be strong enough to resist theforces.
  9. 9. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTSFOUNDATIONis the lowest supporting layer of a supporting systemof the building (structure) that is transferring the loads to the ground and uniformlydistributing to the area under structure.Foundations are generally divided into two categories:1.shallow foundations and2.deep foundationsTypes of materials used :Concrete :Strong in compression but weak in tension. Can be reinforced with steel barsSteel :Used with concrete for heavy foundation
  10. 10. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTSDECISION ABOUT FOUNDATION TYPES FOR THE BUILDINGDepends on :1. Total building loads (building size & form, ways of transmitting loads toground)2. Soil conditions - nature & bearing capacity of soil, The ground consists ofcompressible soil of varying degrees.(Bearing capacity refers to the site load per unit area which the ground can take.Note that these will be advised by the engineer)
  11. 11. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTSTYPES OF FOUNDATIONS:1.Pad Foundation2. Pole Foundation3. Strip Foundation4. Raft / Mat Foundation5. Combined Foundation6. Pile Foundation7. Caisson FoundationSHALLOW FOUNDATIONDEEP FOUNDATION
  12. 12. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSSHALLOW FOUNDATION TYPOLOGY1.shear walls2.continuous under a series of columns3. pedestal types under walls; isolated types under columns4.combination with beams, under walls; combination types in the form ofuniform or ribbed slabs (under an entire structure or part of a structure); andmat, or rafT.Figure 1. Cast shallow foundations: (a) continuous under a wall, (b) continuous under columns, (c) isolated under a column, (d) combination under columns; (1) lower continuous footing of reinforced concrete, (2) foundation wall (3) column
  13. 13. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  14. 14. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  15. 15. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
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  18. 18. Raffles International Institute TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  19. 19. Raffles International InstituteSHALLOW FOUNDATIONShallow foundations, often called footings, are usually embedded around0.8 m - 1.2m into soil.1. One common type is the spread footing which consists of STRIPS ORPADS of concrete (or other materials such as steel, wood) which extend belowthe frost line and transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil orbedrock.2. Another common type of shallow foundation is the SLAB-ON-GRADEfoundation where the weight of the building is transferred to the soilthrough a concrete slab placed at the surface.DIMENSIONSDimensioning of shallow foundation elements is based according to thepermitted load capacity of the soil on which the building rests. Loadbearing Capacity of the soil can be to pressure and friction. Footing area isplaced to reach bellow the level of soil freezing.TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  20. 20. Raffles International InstituteSHALLOW FOUNDATIONUsed when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity occurs near tothe ground surface.• Placed directly below the lowest part of a substructure and transferbuilding loads directly to the supporting soil by vertical pressure.• Consists of bearing pads of reinforced concrete of sufficient plan size toresolve vertical forces into a low value of bearing pressure* on the soil.(*Bearing Pressure : Pressure produced on ground by building loads)TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  21. 21. Raffles International InstituteSTRIPS OR PADSFoundation strips (pads)Soil load capacitySoilTYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  22. 22. Raffles International InstituteFoundation strips (beams)Foundation wallsFootingTYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTSSLAB-ON-GRADE
  23. 23. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSFOOTINGFOUNDATIONBEAMFOUNDATIONWALLORCOLUMN030201010203
  24. 24. Raffles International Institute STRUCTURAL SYSTEMSTRANSFERING LOADS
  25. 25. Raffles International InstituteDEEP FOUNDATIONA deep foundation is used to transfer the load of a structure down through theupper weak layer of topsoil to the stronger layer of subsoil below.Used when the soil underlying a foundation is unstable or of inadequatebearing capacity. Extend down through unsuitable soil to transfer buildingloads to a more appropriate bearing stratum of rock or dense sands andgravels below the superstructure.TYPES OF DEEP FOUNDATION are:1.pile foundations and2.caisson foundations (special types of buildings, bridges, industry etc)Types of deep footings including:impact driven piles, drilled shafts, caissons, helical piles and earth stabilizedcolumns.PILES MATERIALS:wood, later steel, reinforced concrete, and pre-tensioned concrete.TYPOLOGY AND ELEMENTS
  26. 26. Raffles International Institute PILE FOUNDATION
  27. 27. Raffles International Institute CAISSON FOUNDATION
  28. 28. Raffles International Institute HORIZONTAL HYDRO INSULATION
  29. 29. Raffles International Institute VERITICAL HYDRO INSULATION
  30. 30. Raffles International Institute DRAINAGE SYSTEM

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