Superstructure construction


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Superstructure construction

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Superstructure construction

  1. 1. SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION At the end of this topic, students should be able to: 1. List superstructure construction. 2. Describe the methods of superstructure construction.
  2. 2. SUPERSTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION • Superstructure – building parts located above the ground level such as column, beam, floor, wall and roof. • Materials - timber, steel and concrete.
  3. 3. Frame Structure Construction Timber Frame Floor Wall Roof
  4. 4. Frame Structure Construction Reinforced Concrete Frame Column & Beam Construction Formwork Design Reinforced Steel Bar Construction Concrete Pouring Formwork stripping
  5. 5. A) Timber Floor i) Floor   Timber floor consist of plank of wood with 25mm thickness which is supported by joist with size of 50mm x 75mm to 100mm. Distance for joist is between 300mm x 600mm from centre to centre.
  6. 6. i) Floor • Strutting – installed between joist. • Purpose – to prevent the joist from twisting.
  7. 7. i) Floor   All joist are arranged on timber beam. Timber beam should be bigger than timber joist.
  8. 8. A) Timber Frame ii) Wall  Pieces of planks are used to constructed a wooden wall by nailing on timber wall structure.
  9. 9. A) Timber Frame iii) Roof  i. ii. iii. iv. v.  i. ii. Factors that influenced roof structure design: Span distance. Types of roof cover. Roof cover load and weather load. Cost. Aesthetic value. Main characteristics of timber roof structure: Enough strength to support the cover load and external load such as rain and storm. All the frame parts consist o treated hard timber.
  10. 10. Types of roof structure from timber
  11. 11. B) Reinforced Concrete Frame Column and beam construction Concrete column formwork Concrete beam formwork Beam is a part of a building which sustains load and transfer it to column. The column then transfer all its load to the building foundation.
  12. 12. Procedures for column and beam construction 1. Formwork design Formwork construction for concrete column Formwork construction for concrete beam Concrete formwork purpose is to place and form concrete mixture according to prescribed size and design. It is a temporary building structure which needs to be opened when the concrete inside hardens
  13. 13. Procedures for column and beam construction 2. Reinforcement steel bars installation
  14. 14. Procedures for column and beam construction 3. Concrete pouring
  15. 15. Procedures for column and beam construction 4. Formwork stripping FORMWORK PART FORMWORK STRIPPING DURATION Stripping side parts of beam and column formwork. 2 – 6 DAYS Stripping bottom parts, beam support and other unloading parts 7 – 14 DAYS Stripping bottom parts beam support and other loading parts 28 DAYS
  17. 17. Load Bearing Wall Construction Load bearing wall is constructed in order to support load other than its own. Wall will support all loads before transferring them to the foundation. The wall thickness is normally not less than one brick or 215 mm. Example of load bearing wall This wall also uses reinforcement steel bars or is combined with column to strengthen its position.
  18. 18. Load Bearing Wall Construction Non-load bearing wall is the wall which does not support other load except its own. This wall is constructed on building which has frames such as column and concrete beam. The wall thickness is sufficient with only half a brick or 102.5 mm and is normally constructed with a stretcher bond. Example of nonload bearing wall