Birth of modernity Adolf Loos

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Birth of modernity Adolf Loos
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Birth of modernity Adolf Loos

  1. 1. ADOLF LOOS LESSON 3 MODULE: 20TH CENTURY DESIGN AND CULTURE RAFFLES INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE MONGOLIA LECTURER: SANDRA DRASKOVIC
  2. 2. The story begins in 1896. Adolf Loos returns to Vienna after three years in America familiarising himself with the theoretical writings of Louis Sullivan and pioneering achievements of the Chicago school. Vienna in contrast was confined and conservative in its days of the declining Austro-Hungarian empire, no doubt an atmosphere that was terribly suffocating for Loos. Against this backdrop of Austrian geo-political turmoil enters the Viennese Secessionists, a group formed in 1897 by artists Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Max Kurzweil and architects Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich who objected to the prevailing conservatism of the Vienna Künstlerhaud resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists. The Secessionists were heavily influenced by Charles Mackintosh‟s work and his radical break from the traditional vernacular to introduce new comprehensive designs as total works of art. ADOLF LOOS
  3. 3. Fresh from his American travels, Adolf Loos found what the Secessionists were offering completely ludicrous and responded with harsh criticisms in the form of an anti-Gesamtkunstwerk fable, „The Story of a Poor Rich Man‟, in which Loos portrayed the story of a wealthy businessman who had a Secessionist architect design a „total‟ house for him, including the furnishings and the clothes, only to be reprimanded by the architect on his birthday for disrupting the mood of the living room by wearing slippers meant for the bedroom. It was a sardonic response to the special clothes designed for the occupant's wife to harmonize with the lines of the house Olbrich built at Uccle in 1895. In 1908, Adolf Loos followed up his attack on the Secessionists by publishing his most seminal work, ‘Ornament and Crime’ to elaborate on what he saw as the Viennese Secession‟s arbitrary or superfluous use of ornamentation that had no relevance to society. ADOLF LOOS
  4. 4. Thus he accused his contemporaries use of ornament on their furniture, buildings and clothes in the Secession fashion as a way of masking the mediocrity of their culture and social condition, and even cites Olbrich by name as a progenitor of illegitimate ornament. "Where will Olbrich‟s work be in ten years‟ time? Modern ornament has no forebears and no descendants, no past and no future. It is joyfully welcomed by uncultivated people to whom the true greatness of our time is a closed book, and after a short time is rejected." ADOLF LOOS
  5. 5. The crucial argument against such redundant ornament was not only that it was wasteful in labour and material, but that it invariably implied a form of craft slavery for the modern man who sees no value in creating such ornaments. "Today, mankind is healthier than ever before; only a few are ill. These few, however, tyrannise the worker, who is so healthy he is incapable of inventing ornament. They force him to execute ornament which they have designed, in the most diverse materials.“ Bourgeois culture can only find their aesthetic fulfilment in the creation of ornament. ADOLF LOOS
  6. 6. purist manifesto Loos only called for suppression in ornaments from articles of daily use, or functional objects, and not in all forms of ornament. He did not criticize the grammar of classical ornament as he did with the superfluous ornamentation of the Secessionists, nor did he do so with geometric decoration inherent in materials – both of which he practiced to a large degree. Thus it is important to remember that Loos did not challenge historical references in architectural ornamentation, but merely the false usage that was common to that age. In this respect, Adolf Loos shares a similar stand point with Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Mackintosh too discarded the heavy ornamentation and inherited styles of Victorian England that had no relevance to his Scottish heritage. ADOLF LOOS
  7. 7. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE
  8. 8. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE Architectural styles vary to a great extent along this circular boulevard, even though many of the buildings were constructed at the same time. The curved length of the Ringstraße, and many of the buildings along its edge, was constructed where the city wall once stood. In the mid 19th century, Emperor Franz Joseph I decreed that the wall should be taken down, and a ring of important public structures should take its place. This monumental boulevard was built to display the Hapsburg’s power and wealth. The Burgtheater, Parliament, Staatsoper and the Rathaus building are just some of the grand edifices you’ll spy jumbled along this road, representing a variety of architectural movements.
  9. 9. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE
  10. 10. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE-RATHOUSE
  11. 11. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE – HOUSE OF PARLAMENTS
  12. 12. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE – STAATSOPERA
  13. 13. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE – STAATSOPERA
  14. 14. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE – STAATSOPERA
  15. 15. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE - KARLSKIRCHE
  16. 16. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE - KARLSKIRCHE
  17. 17. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE - Votive Church
  18. 18. RINGSTRASSE – Academy of Fine arts
  19. 19. RINGSTRASSE – UNIVERSITY BUILDING
  20. 20. RINGSTRASSE – URANIA BUILDING
  21. 21. Vienna Secession, Joseph Maria Olbrich: 1898-99
  22. 22. Vienna Secession, Joseph Maria Olbrich: 1898-99
  23. 23. Vienna Secession, Joseph Maria Olbrich: 1898-99
  24. 24. Vienna Secession, Joseph Maria Olbrich: 1898-99
  25. 25. VIENNA RINGSTRASSE NEO CLASSICISM – CITY OF ARISTOCRACY NEO STYLES ADOPTED FOR PUBLIC BUILDINGS “BORROWED” STYLES FROM ITALY, GREECE, RENAISSANCE, GOTHIC,ROMANESQUE, LUXURY PALACES AND VILLAS “How to join non-formal Anglo-Saxon interiors (Arts & Crafts, Glasgow school) with rigid, strict interiors of eclectic classical interiors and shapes (against grotesque fantastic creatures of secession)”
  26. 26. FIRST INTERIORS •1910 – ADAPTATION OF INTERIORS IN Vienna. Influences form Japan, USA, romantism 1. Luxurious retail stores in Vienna 2. Café Museum, 1899 3. Goldman & Salatsch interiors 1896. 4. Knize boutique, 1909 5. Kartner (American bar) 1907.
  27. 27. Café Museum • The first example of Loos’ work is the Café Museum(1899). Designed at the peak of the Art Nouveau period. • The building affirms his aesthetic equation of beauty and utility. The walls are painted a cool green, whilst the Loos- designed chairs are of a dark red timber. These contrasting colours are synonymous with many of Loos’ interiors. • They are balanced in the Café Museumby a vaulted ceiling that is painted plainly in white whilst a pattern is created by brass strips that, in line with their utilitarian function, also served as electrical conduit to chain- suspended lighting.
  28. 28. Café Museum
  29. 29. Café Museum
  30. 30. Goldman & Salatsch
  31. 31. Goldman & Salatsch
  32. 32. Goldman & Salatsch • Loos had used ornament where he felt appropriate to preserve the cultural integrity of the building, but where there was no perceived purpose, he was not compelled to provide decoration. • Loos observed that "on the ground floor and mezzanine, where the shop has established itself, that is where modern commercial life demands a modern solution" yet at the same time "modern man, who hurries through the streets, sees only that which is that his eye-level. • Thus the residential suites in the upper portion of the Goldman & Salatsch building was deliberately left unadorned, with only three- pane windows piercing the smooth stucco walls, making the building a combination of these two different zones, residential and commercial, as two materially autonomous halves. Loos was being highly specific in his treatment of each space and demonstrating an honesty.
  33. 33. Goldman & Salatsch
  34. 34. Goldman & Salatsch
  35. 35. Goldman & Salatsch
  36. 36. Goldman & Salatsch
  37. 37. Goldman & Salatsch
  38. 38. Goldman & Salatsch
  39. 39. Goldman & Salatsch
  40. 40. Knize boutique Founded in 1858 by the bespoke tailor Josef Kniže, the house specialized in sportswear, riding attire and liveries. From 1910 – 1913 star architect Adolf Loos designed Knize’s second floor and later also the store front at Graben 13, which is still the home of the haberdasher today.
  41. 41. Knize boutique
  42. 42. Knize boutique
  43. 43. Knize boutique Pentagondodekaeder a ball made from 12 flat pentagons, made for the famous taylor-shop Knize in Vienna, Paris and Berlin"
  44. 44. Kartner American bar The facade features a forepart shaped glass prism located on the three glass doors and the same size of the input. These doors are finished in brass coated separated by four red marble pillars of Skyros and originally functioned as only the central entrance. The glass prism consists of two parts, the bottom facing the visitor, is composed of crystals that make up the American flag and lyrics composed by stained glass mosaics with the name of the bar. The top of the prism is flat. This prism is topped by a sign leaning against the wall of the facade Earl reads "American Bar", noting that the architect's admiration acquired by Anglo-American culture, very different from his previous so typically Viennese Café Museum (1899), also reminiscent of an English pub.
  45. 45. Kartner American bar This small bar, just off the Kärntner Strasse in central Vienna, show Loos' combination of simple, unadorned forms with opulent materials and fine, simple detailing to give a modern, rich impression. Mirrors covering the whole width of the wall above the bar, and the parallel wall opposite, multiplies the apparent size of the small room, giving the image of an array of seemingly freestanding columns. The simple geometry of the columns and joists in this image matches that in Loos's House on Michaelerplatz of the same period. Seating is in small booths around three backlit tables, which glow white in the dark, yellowish brown atmosphere of the bar.
  46. 46. Kartner American bar • 27.72 meters square and consists of a single room of 4.5 meters wide and 6.16 background of its surface • Loos uses an optical illusion inside, through the mirrors arranged parallel and vertically above the eye, thus multiplying the composition of the coffered ceiling with pieces yellow and brown marble. • The decor of the bar we used a wide variety of materials: marble, onyx, mahogany, brass, glass mirrors and silk wall lamps. • The bottom of the bar is lined with mahogany paneling and mirrors interspersed with one-piece, floor combines black and white marble as a chessboard, the bar is mahogany, covered by a solid wood armrests and clamps bronze. Originally the seats were upholstered with a flowery English cloth and all the lamps were covered with silks to mitigate the effect of light. • The only three tables in the bar, are octagonal in shape, with one foot and opaque glass top is illuminated from below
  47. 47. Kartner American bar
  48. 48. Kartner American bar
  49. 49. Kartner American bar
  50. 50. Kartner American bar
  51. 51. Kartner American bar
  52. 52. •Between 1910 and 1920 – RESIDENTIAL VILLAS IN Vienna. RAUMPLAN 1. Villa Steiner, 1910 2. Villa Muller, Vienna 3. Villa Mueler, Prague 4. Villa Rufer, 1912, Vienna 5. Scheu House, Vienna, at Austria, 1912 to 1913. RESIDENTIAL INTERIORS
  53. 53. •MATERIALS: high qulity materials should replace ornamentation, higher form of intelligent luxury. •CEILING: • public and social rooms: white without ornamentations • private and family rooms: wooden or iron “modular” ceilings • dining room: grotesque Richard’s wooden beams of big dimensions •FLOORS: stone, wooden parquet, oriental carpets, fireplace frame, brick, raugh materials •FURNITURE: glare, glorious, polished, laquered wood and glass mirrors, lighting, metal objects and brass details, build-in furniture, ready-made furniture of own choice. DESIGN OF VILLAS
  54. 54. • Built in the same year as the essay Architecktur was published (1910), Hugo Steiner's house is one of Loos's most significant and well-known works. Because of its severe and advanced modernity of form it has been adopted in the histories of contemporary architecture as an example of the phase of transition and an anticipation of the language of Rationalism. • Architect is owner of walls and build-in furniture. The remaining furniture to be manufactured by craftsman in the spirit of modern period – everyone has right to buy them alone, based on own demands and preferences. (different from art neavou) Villa Steiner
  55. 55. Villa Steiner
  56. 56. Villa Steiner
  57. 57. Villa Steiner
  58. 58. Villa Steiner
  59. 59. Villa Steiner
  60. 60. Villa Steiner
  61. 61. Villa Steiner
  62. 62. •Between 1920 - 1922– MAIN ARCHITECT IN CHAMBER FOR URBANISM IN Vienna. RAUMPLAN used for massive housing projects as urban strategy • Hauber village, houses in raws and glass garden • Horner House, at Vienna, Austria, 1921. • Rufer House, at Vienna, Austria, 1922. • Villa Stross, at Vienna, Austria, 1922. • Landhaus Spanner, at Gumpoldskirchen, Austria, 1923. URBAN PLANNER
  63. 63. •1922– MOVING TO PARIS TO BUILD HOUSE OF DADA POET TRISTAN TSAR. • House of Tristan Tsar, Paris, 1928 • Moller House, Vienna, at Austria, 1927 to 1928. • Wohnung Hans Brummel, at Vienna, Austria, 1929. • Wohnung Willy Hirsch, at Pilsen, Czech Republic, 1929. • Khuner Villa, at on the Kreuzberg, Payerback, Austria, 1930. • Villa Muller, Prague, Czech Republic, 1930. PARIS PERIOD
  64. 64. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  65. 65. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  66. 66. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  67. 67. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  68. 68. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  69. 69. HOUSE OF TRISTAN TSAR
  70. 70. • The Prague villa for František Müller and his wife Milada built between 1928 and 1930 was created according to the design of one of the greatest architects of that time, Adolf Loos. •The Villa Muller is located in Prague, Czech Republic, 1930,and its considered one of Adolf’s most significant architectural works. • It’s facade has a minimalist cubist style with linear and geometric forms while the interior features rich marble, woods and textures in deep colors. VILLA MULLER
  71. 71. • Loos to bring his original spatial concept, the so-called Raumplan based on spatial and height differentiation of incorporated rooms, to culmination. • This concept that was together with the absence of ornament the basic idea characteristic of his other famous buildings (the Goldmann & Salatsch department store in Vienna, the house of the poet Tristan Tzara in Paris and the unrealized project of a house for Josephine Baker) led to new modern architecture. VILLA MULLER
  72. 72. • exterior is austere, a white cube structure interrupted by yellow-framed windows. • The interior, however, is in stark contrast to the simplicity of the façade. Loos has used luxurious materials to decorate the interior. Slabs of green Greek marble encase some of the walls; parts of the house are panelled with mahogany and laquered wood, Delfttiles, silk prints, floral wallpaper and travertine. • Each floor is a classic example of Loos’ Raumplan with split-levels, short staircases and multiple landings • These, together with a definitive use of contrasting colours, especially terracotta and green contribute to the house’s aesthetic appeal. VILLA MULLER
  73. 73. Villa Muller CUBISTIC MINIMALISTIC EXTERIOR
  74. 74. Villa Muller Levels and surface area, voids through walls.
  75. 75. Villa Muller CUBISTIC MINIMALISTIC EXTERIOR
  76. 76. Villa Muller
  77. 77. Villa Muller
  78. 78. Villa Muller
  79. 79. Villa Muller
  80. 80. Villa Muller
  81. 81. Villa Muller Levels and surface area, voids through walls.
  82. 82. Villa Muller
  83. 83. Villa Muller Levels and surface area, voids through walls.
  84. 84. Villa Muller Levels and surface area, voids through walls.
  85. 85. RAUMPLAN
  86. 86. RAUMPLAN
  87. 87. Villa Muller Furniture design

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