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General Introduction to Health research (Basic)
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General Introduction to Health research (Basic)


This is a simple and general presentation about the health research which is prepared to present within staffs of Naulo Ghumti Nepal especially for EIHS staffs, objective if this presentation is to …

This is a simple and general presentation about the health research which is prepared to present within staffs of Naulo Ghumti Nepal especially for EIHS staffs, objective if this presentation is to orient staffs about research.

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  • 2. Meaning of Research • The word research was originated from ‘recherche’ which means to travel through or survey. • RE+SEARCH= Search after search and search • Careful search or inquiry into any subject matter. • To investigate thoroughly
  • 3. • Research is the process of finding solution to a problem after a through study and analysis of the situational factors. • Research as a movement, a movement from unknown to known. • Systematic effort to gain of knowledge.
  • 4. Research is systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data to answer a certain question or solve a problem. Research need to conducted in a  systematic fashion Logical Orderly process.
  • 5. PURPOSES OF RESEARCH • Generation new knowledge • Improve understanding • Application testing • Comparing best practices • Helping with decision making  Exploration  Description  Explanation  Generalization/prediction  Theory building
  • 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH • Demands a clear statement of the problem • Requires a scientific plan • purposiveness • Relevance, testability, effectiveness. • Ethnical • Collection and interpretation of data.
  • 7. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to gain new insights into it. • To describe the characteristics of a particular cause, situation or environment. • To determine the relationship between two or more variables. • To test hypothesis. • To solve the problems. • It provides answers for questions like what, where, when, how and why.
  • 8. TYPES OF RESEARCH On the basis of Application of research study • Basic research • Applied research Objectives in understanding the research • Observational research • Experimental research Method of study • Quantitative research • Qualitative research
  • 9. RESEARCH PROCESS Research is a team work
  • 10. RESEARCH PROCESS • Identification of the research problem • Review of literature • Formulation of the objectives of the study • Protocol preparation • Conducting the study • Analysis of the data • Preparation of report
  • 11. CRITERIAFOR SELECTINGARESEARCH PROJECT Interest Relevance Avoidance of duplication Feasibility Political acceptability Applicability Cost-effectiveness Ethical considerations
  • 12. FORMULATING STUDY PROBLEM Formulating a study problem is the first and most important steps in the study process. A study problem identifies researcher’s destination and decide what he want to find out.
  • 13. CRITERIAFOR DEVELOPINGAGOOD RESEARCH QUESTION Feasibility Interesting Novel Ethical Relevant 13 FINER
  • 14. ABSTRACT The abstract should be written in about 200 words, it contents brief synopsis of activities to be carried out in the study. It helps to understand the frame of study activities for the reader.
  • 15. BACKGROUND The background may provide general idea about formulating problem and linked between present situation and past experiences.
  • 16. OBJECTIVE Objectives of Research should be S=Specific M=Measurable A=Achievable R=Reasonable T=Timeliness
  • 17. LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review is a written summary of articles, books and other documents that describe the past and current state ok knowledge about topic.
  • 18. FORMULATING THE HYPOTHESES Hypotheses is always developed in response to the purpose statement or to answer the research question.
  • 19. METHODOLOGY • Study design • Study area and population • Sampling and Sample selection • Study variables • Data collection • Data analysis
  • 20. SAMPLINGAND SAMPLE SELECTION There are different process of sampling methods; • Probability sampling • Non-probability sampling
  • 21. STUDYVARIABLES • Dependent variables • Independent Variable Variables may take numerical (quantitative) or non- numerical (qualitative) values. Quantitative Variables Qualitative Variables
  • 22. INSTRUMENTS • Questionnaires • Checklist • Guidelines • Lab equipment • Medicines
  • 23. DATACOLLECTION Process contains four interdependent elements; • Defining a research methods • Defining and constituting the sample • Choosing and preparing Data collection tools • Evaluating the tools-pre test
  • 24. DATA ANALYSIS • Entered into a database • Editing and coding • Computer software used; dBase IV, SPSS, Epi, Epinfo, STATA, Excel • Frequencies and cross- tabulations • Selection of analytical techniques
  • 25. INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGSAND REPORTWRITING CONTAINS OF REPORT • Research title • Acknowledgement • Abbreviations • List of table • List of figures • Introduction (background, statement of problem and its justification or rationale) • Objectives • Methodology • Results • Discussion • Recommendations • References • Annexes
  • 26. Valuable suggestion and feedback are awaiting…….. mail4sagun@gmail.com THANKYOU!!