SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 22
VARIOUS TYPES OF RESEARCHES

      VAISALI K   B070225AR
WHAT IS RESEARCH?

The systematic, rigorous investigation of a
situation or problem in order to generate new
knowledge or validate existing knowledge.
APPLIED RESEARCH
                                           APPLIED RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                            Applied research refers to scientific study and research that
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to
                            find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            knowledge's sake.

  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
                            • Improve agricultural crop production
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.   • Treat or cure a specific disease
                            • Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                              of transportation
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL


        RESEARCH


  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                          BASIC RESEARCH
    BASIC RESEARCH
                            Basic (aka fundamental or pure ) research is driven by a
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The
                            main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            the discoveries that result from basic research.

  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            For example, basic science investigations probe for answers
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .    to questions such as:

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.   •   How did the universe begin?
                            •   What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of?
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                            •   How do slime molds reproduce?
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                            •   What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?

        RESEARCH


  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH


CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH      Correlational research refers to the systematic investigation or
                            statistical study of relationships among two or more variables,
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH     without necessarily determining cause and effect.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                             It Seeks to establish a relation/association/correlation
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            between two or more variables that do not readily lend
                            themselves to experimental manipulation.
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
                            For example, to test the hypothesis “ Listening to music lowers
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.   blood pressure levels” there are 2 ways of conducting research

   HISTORICAL RESEARCH      • Experimental – group samples and make one group listen
                              to music and then compare the bp levels
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                            • Survey – ask people how they feel ? How often they listen?
        RESEARCH              And then compare

  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH


CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH      Advantages:

   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH         1) Can collect much information from many subjects at
                                one time.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                                2) Can study a wide range of variables and their
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                                interrelations.
                                3) Study variables that are not easily produced in the
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .        laboratory.

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                            Disadvantages:
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH

                                1)   Correlation does not indicate causation( cause and
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                                     effect).
        RESEARCH                2)   Problems with self-report method .

  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                      DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH


 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
                             Descriptive research refers to research that provides an
                             accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual,
 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                             situation, or group. Descriptive research, also known
                             as statistical research.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                             These studies are a means of discovering new meaning,
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH      describing what exists, determining the frequency with which
                             something occurs, and categorizing information.
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .


GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.   In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be
                            counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH      people it deals with.
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                            For example,
        RESEARCH
                            • finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of
                               a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH         prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.

  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                     DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH


 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
                            Advantages:

 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            • The people individual studied are unaware so they act
                              naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation;
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH      • It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative
                              experiments;
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH     • Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying;
                            • As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .      to start the research with it;

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.

                            Disadvantages
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH


   PHENOMENOLOGICAL         •   Descriptive research requires more skills.
                            •   Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
        RESEARCH            •   Response rate is low in this research.
                            •   Results of this research can change over the period of
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH          time.
  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                   ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                            Ethnographic research refer to the investigation of a culture
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     through an in-depth study of the members of the culture; it
                            involves the systematic collection, description, and analysis
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour.
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

                            • It studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                              formations, their ethno genesis, composition,
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .      resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as
                              their material and spiritual culture.
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                            • Data collection is often done through participant
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH        observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                            •    The purpose of ethnographic research is to attempt to
        RESEARCH
                                understand what is happening naturally in the setting and
                                to interpret the data gathered to see what implications
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH          could be formed from the data.

  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                   EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH

                             Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
                            investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH     phenomena and examining probability and causality among
                            selected variables.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH

                            Advantages
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            • Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .

                            Disadvantages
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.


   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                            •   Artificiality

   PHENOMENOLOGICAL         •   Feasibility

        RESEARCH            • Unethical
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                   EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH

                            The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
                            groups of participants.
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            The two variables(Independent versus Dependent variables).
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH         variable.
                            • Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .      the DV.

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.    The two groups of participants (Control versus Experimental
                            group).
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                            • Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly)
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                               assigns his/her sample to two different groups: the control
                               group and the experimental (treatment group or clinical group).
        RESEARCH            • The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no
                               treatment), whereas the experimental group receives the
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH         manipulation of the IV
  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                     EXPLORATORY RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                            Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory
                            research helps determine the best research design, data
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH     collection method and selection of subjects.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • The results of exploratory research are not usually useful
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                              for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide
                              significant insight into a given situation
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
                            • Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                              the population at large.

   HISTORICAL RESEARCH      • Exploratory research can be quite informal, relying
                              on secondary research such as reviewing available
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL           literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as
                              informal discussions with consumers, employees,
        RESEARCH
                              management or competitors, and more formal approaches
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
                              through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective
                              methods, case studies or pilot studies.
  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH              GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH
    BASIC RESEARCH
                          Grounded theory research is a research approach designed to
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH    discover what problems exist in a given social environment and
                          how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation,
 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH     testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is
                          developed.
ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH


EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                          Grounded theory is a research method that operates almost in a
                         reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may appear to
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .   be in contradiction to the scientific method.
 GROUNDED THEORY
                         Four stages:
      RESEARCH.          1. Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data
                            to be gathered
 HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                         2. Concepts-Collections of codes of similar content that allows the
  PHENOMENOLOGICAL          data to be grouped
                         3. Categories-Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to
      RESEARCH              generate a theory
                         4. Theory-A collection of explanations that explain the subject of
 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
                            the research (hypotheses)
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                       HISTORICAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                             Historical research is research involving analysis of events
                             that occurred in the remote or recent past
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH


   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            Application
                            • Historical research can show patterns that occurred in the past
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                              and over time which can help us to see where we came from
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH       and what kinds of solutions we have used in the past.
                            • Understanding this can add perspective on how we examine
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .      current events and educational practices.

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.

                            The steps involved in the conduct of historical research
 HISTORICAL RESEARCH        Here are the five steps:
                            1. Identification of the research topic and formulation of the
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL         research problem or question.
        RESEARCH
                            2. Data collection or literature review
                            3. Evaluation of materials
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH      4. Data synthesis
                            5. Report preparation or preparation of the narrative exposition
  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                       HISTORICAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                            Historical research gives a social scientist a better context for
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     making realistic decisions.

   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH      Strengths
                            • Provides a comprehensive picture of historical trends
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • Uses existing information
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            • Provides evidence of on-going trends and problems

  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .    Limitations
                            • Time-consuming
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.   • Resources may be hard to locate
                            • Resources may be conflicting
 HISTORICAL RESEARCH        • May not identify cause of a problem
                            • Information may be incomplete, obsolete, inconclusive, or
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL            inaccurate
                            • Data restricted to what already exists
        RESEARCH


  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                PHENOMENLOGICAL RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH
                            Phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its
                            aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH     person

 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH       from the perspective of the individual, ‘bracketing’ taken-for-
                              granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving.
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .

                            • They are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                              subjectivity, and emphasise the importance of personal
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH        perspective and interpretation.

  PHENOMENOLOGICAL          • As such they are powerful for understanding subjective
       RESEARCH               experience, gaining insights into people’s motivations and
                              actions, and cutting through the clutter of taken-for-granted
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
                              assumptions and conventional wisdom.
  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH


      BASIC RESEARCH        On a broader perspective, all researches
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     can be classified into two groups:
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH


 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH


  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                            • Qualitative Research
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .


GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                            • Quantitative Research
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH

   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
        RESEARCH

  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                      QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH


 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
                            Qualitative research is research dealing with phenomena that are
                            difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs,
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            meanings, attributes, and symbols
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH


  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
                              Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .      understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that
                              govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                              the why and how of decision making, not just what, where,
                              when.
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH


   PHENOMENOLOGICAL


        RESEARCH


 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                      QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH         Advantages
                            • It enables more complex aspects of a persons experience to
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH        be studied
                            • Fewer restriction or assumptions are placed on the data to
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                               be collected.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • Not everything can be quantified, or quantified easily,
                               Individuals can be studied in more depth
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH     • Good for exploratory research and hypothesis generation
                            • The participants are able to provide data in their own words
  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .       and in their own way

GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.

                             Disadvantages
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                            • It is more difficult to determine the validity and reliability of
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                               linguistic data
                            • there is more subjectivity involved in analysing the data.
        RESEARCH            • “Data overload” – open-ended questions can sometimes
                               create lots of data, which can take along time to analyse!
 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH       • Time consuming

  QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH                    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH        Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical
                            investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH     computational techniques. The objective of quantitative
                            research is to develop and employ mathematical
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                            models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            Quantitative research is generally made using scientific
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH     methods, which can include:

  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
                            • The generation of models, theories and hypotheses
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.
                            • The development of instruments and methods for
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH        measurement

   PHENOMENOLOGICAL         • Experimental control and manipulation of variables

        RESEARCH            • Collection of empirical data
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
                            • Modelling and analysis of data
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
                            • Evaluation of results
APPLIED RESEARCH                   QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
      BASIC RESEARCH         Advantages
                            • Quantitative research allows the researcher to measure and
 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH        analyse data.
                            • The researcher is more objective about the findings of the
   DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
                               research.
 ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
                            • Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses in
                               experiments because of its ability to measure data using
  EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH        statistics.

  EXPLORATORY RESEARCH .
                              Disadvantages
GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH.    • The main disadvantage of quantitative research is the
                                context of the study or experiment is ignored.
   HISTORICAL RESEARCH
                             • Quantitative research does not study things in a natural
   PHENOMENOLOGICAL
                                setting or discuss the meaning things have for different
                                people.
        RESEARCH             • A large sample of the population must be studied for more
                                accurate results
  QUALITATIVE RESEARCH


QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Research hypothesis
Research hypothesisResearch hypothesis
Research hypothesisNursing Path
 
Literature review in research methodology
Literature review in research methodologyLiterature review in research methodology
Literature review in research methodologyraison sam raju
 
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research Design
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research DesignUnderstanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research Design
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research DesignDrShalooSaini
 
objectives of research
objectives of researchobjectives of research
objectives of researchRishad Rish
 
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.RajaKrishnan M
 
Basic vs Applied Research
Basic vs Applied ResearchBasic vs Applied Research
Basic vs Applied ResearchAnupama Saini
 
Source of Data in Research
Source of Data in ResearchSource of Data in Research
Source of Data in ResearchManu K M
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of researchAshish Sahu
 
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHODCLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD Dr.Shazia Zamir
 

What's hot (20)

Introduction to Research
Introduction to ResearchIntroduction to Research
Introduction to Research
 
Research hypothesis
Research hypothesisResearch hypothesis
Research hypothesis
 
Applied research
Applied researchApplied research
Applied research
 
Research report
Research reportResearch report
Research report
 
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
RESEARCH OBJECTIVESRESEARCH OBJECTIVES
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
 
Literature review in research methodology
Literature review in research methodologyLiterature review in research methodology
Literature review in research methodology
 
Research Design
Research DesignResearch Design
Research Design
 
A GOOD RESEARCH
A GOOD RESEARCHA GOOD RESEARCH
A GOOD RESEARCH
 
Research Methods
Research MethodsResearch Methods
Research Methods
 
Research problem
Research problem Research problem
Research problem
 
Types of variables in research
Types of variables in research Types of variables in research
Types of variables in research
 
Ppt on research
Ppt on researchPpt on research
Ppt on research
 
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research Design
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research DesignUnderstanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research Design
Understanding the Descriptive/ Diagnostic Research Design
 
objectives of research
objectives of researchobjectives of research
objectives of research
 
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.
Research meaning, Definition, Purpose, Objectives and Process.
 
Basic vs Applied Research
Basic vs Applied ResearchBasic vs Applied Research
Basic vs Applied Research
 
Review of Literature
 Review of Literature Review of Literature
Review of Literature
 
Source of Data in Research
Source of Data in ResearchSource of Data in Research
Source of Data in Research
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHODCLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH BY PURPOSE & METHOD
 

Viewers also liked

Definition and types of research
Definition and types of researchDefinition and types of research
Definition and types of researchfadifm
 
Kinds & classification of research
Kinds & classification of researchKinds & classification of research
Kinds & classification of researchGerlie Joy Gonda
 
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsResearch Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsAhmed-Refat Refat
 
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Nardin A
 
Research Design
Research DesignResearch Design
Research Designgaurav22
 
Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection PRIYAN SAKTHI
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of researchA B
 
Business Research Method
Business Research MethodBusiness Research Method
Business Research MethodGhulam Hasnain
 
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLING
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLINGRESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLING
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLINGHafizah Hajimia
 
Meaning and characteristics of research
Meaning and characteristics of researchMeaning and characteristics of research
Meaning and characteristics of researchjedliam
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodologysh_neha252
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research processaditi garg
 
Types of Research Papers
Types of Research PapersTypes of Research Papers
Types of Research PapersEssayAcademy
 
Descriptive and analytical research
Descriptive and analytical researchDescriptive and analytical research
Descriptive and analytical researchbilal israr
 
Nonexperimental research design
Nonexperimental research designNonexperimental research design
Nonexperimental research designNursing Path
 
Scientific Research and its Types
Scientific Research and its TypesScientific Research and its Types
Scientific Research and its TypesHaris Khan
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Definition and types of research
Definition and types of researchDefinition and types of research
Definition and types of research
 
Kinds & classification of research
Kinds & classification of researchKinds & classification of research
Kinds & classification of research
 
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsResearch Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
 
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
 
Research Design
Research DesignResearch Design
Research Design
 
Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection Methods of data collection
Methods of data collection
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
types of research
types of researchtypes of research
types of research
 
Business Research Method
Business Research MethodBusiness Research Method
Business Research Method
 
Fundamental, Applied and Action Research
Fundamental, Applied and Action ResearchFundamental, Applied and Action Research
Fundamental, Applied and Action Research
 
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLING
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLINGRESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLING
RESEARCH METHOD - SAMPLING
 
Meaning and characteristics of research
Meaning and characteristics of researchMeaning and characteristics of research
Meaning and characteristics of research
 
Research methodology notes
Research methodology notesResearch methodology notes
Research methodology notes
 
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTIONChapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Research process
Research processResearch process
Research process
 
Types of Research Papers
Types of Research PapersTypes of Research Papers
Types of Research Papers
 
Descriptive and analytical research
Descriptive and analytical researchDescriptive and analytical research
Descriptive and analytical research
 
Nonexperimental research design
Nonexperimental research designNonexperimental research design
Nonexperimental research design
 
Scientific Research and its Types
Scientific Research and its TypesScientific Research and its Types
Scientific Research and its Types
 

Similar to Types of Research

Research and its kinds.pptx
Research and its kinds.pptxResearch and its kinds.pptx
Research and its kinds.pptxKainatJameel
 
Research methods
Research methods Research methods
Research methods Leoni Franc
 
types-of-research.pptx
types-of-research.pptxtypes-of-research.pptx
types-of-research.pptxjrgtonyjy
 
Types of research, b usiness research
Types of research, b usiness researchTypes of research, b usiness research
Types of research, b usiness researchSachin Paurush
 
TYPES OF RESEARCHES AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
TYPES OF RESEARCHESAND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPYTYPES OF RESEARCHESAND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
TYPES OF RESEARCHES AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPYQURATULAIN MUGHAL
 
Introduction to business research methodology
Introduction to business research methodologyIntroduction to business research methodology
Introduction to business research methodologyAdil Nawaz Khan
 
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH PRESENTATION.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH  PRESENTATION.pptxFUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH  PRESENTATION.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH PRESENTATION.pptxTamnnakumari
 
Research Methodology
Research   MethodologyResearch   Methodology
Research MethodologyAkashMajji
 
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptxLesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptxChristianFruto
 
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptx
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptxOVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptx
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptxAyoadeMoses1
 

Similar to Types of Research (20)

waste disposal
waste disposalwaste disposal
waste disposal
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
Research and its kinds.pptx
Research and its kinds.pptxResearch and its kinds.pptx
Research and its kinds.pptx
 
Types of research
Types of researchTypes of research
Types of research
 
Research methods
Research methods Research methods
Research methods
 
types-of-research.pptx
types-of-research.pptxtypes-of-research.pptx
types-of-research.pptx
 
types of research.pptx
types of research.pptxtypes of research.pptx
types of research.pptx
 
Types of research, b usiness research
Types of research, b usiness researchTypes of research, b usiness research
Types of research, b usiness research
 
TYPES OF RESEARCHES
TYPES OF RESEARCHESTYPES OF RESEARCHES
TYPES OF RESEARCHES
 
ADVANCED RESEARCH.
ADVANCED RESEARCH.ADVANCED RESEARCH.
ADVANCED RESEARCH.
 
TYPES OF RESEARCHES AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
TYPES OF RESEARCHESAND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPYTYPES OF RESEARCHESAND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
TYPES OF RESEARCHES AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN PHYSIOTHERAPY
 
Introduction to business research methodology
Introduction to business research methodologyIntroduction to business research methodology
Introduction to business research methodology
 
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH PRESENTATION.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH  PRESENTATION.pptxFUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH  PRESENTATION.pptx
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH PRESENTATION.pptx
 
RM-1 (1).pptx
RM-1 (1).pptxRM-1 (1).pptx
RM-1 (1).pptx
 
Research Methodology
Research   MethodologyResearch   Methodology
Research Methodology
 
02 basic researchmethod
02 basic researchmethod02 basic researchmethod
02 basic researchmethod
 
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptxTYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
 
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptxTYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
TYPES OF RESEARCH.pptx
 
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptxLesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 2- Nature of Qualitative Research.pptx
 
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptx
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptxOVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptx
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptxmary850239
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptx
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptxCHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptx
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptxAneriPatwari
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
4.16.24 21st Century Movements for Black Lives.pptx
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptx
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptxCHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptx
CHEST Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.pptx
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 

Types of Research

  • 1. VARIOUS TYPES OF RESEARCHES VAISALI K B070225AR
  • 2. WHAT IS RESEARCH? The systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge.
  • 3. APPLIED RESEARCH APPLIED RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Applied research refers to scientific study and research that CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH knowledge's sake. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . • Improve agricultural crop production GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • Treat or cure a specific disease • Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes HISTORICAL RESEARCH of transportation PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 4. APPLIED RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Basic (aka fundamental or pure ) research is driven by a CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH the discoveries that result from basic research. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH For example, basic science investigations probe for answers EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . to questions such as: GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • How did the universe begin? • What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of? HISTORICAL RESEARCH • How do slime molds reproduce? PHENOMENOLOGICAL • What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly? RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 5. APPLIED RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Correlational research refers to the systematic investigation or statistical study of relationships among two or more variables, DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH without necessarily determining cause and effect. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH It Seeks to establish a relation/association/correlation EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH between two or more variables that do not readily lend themselves to experimental manipulation. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . For example, to test the hypothesis “ Listening to music lowers GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. blood pressure levels” there are 2 ways of conducting research HISTORICAL RESEARCH • Experimental – group samples and make one group listen to music and then compare the bp levels PHENOMENOLOGICAL • Survey – ask people how they feel ? How often they listen? RESEARCH And then compare QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 6. APPLIED RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Advantages: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH 1) Can collect much information from many subjects at one time. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 2) Can study a wide range of variables and their EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH interrelations. 3) Study variables that are not easily produced in the EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . laboratory. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. Disadvantages: HISTORICAL RESEARCH 1) Correlation does not indicate causation( cause and PHENOMENOLOGICAL effect). RESEARCH 2) Problems with self-report method . QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 7. APPLIED RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Descriptive research refers to research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH situation, or group. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the HISTORICAL RESEARCH people it deals with. PHENOMENOLOGICAL For example, RESEARCH • finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to QUALITATIVE RESEARCH prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 8. APPLIED RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Advantages: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH • The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation; ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments; EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying; • As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . to start the research with it; GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. Disadvantages HISTORICAL RESEARCH PHENOMENOLOGICAL • Descriptive research requires more skills. • Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon RESEARCH • Response rate is low in this research. • Results of this research can change over the period of QUALITATIVE RESEARCH time. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 9. APPLIED RESEARCH ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Ethnographic research refer to the investigation of a culture CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH through an in-depth study of the members of the culture; it involves the systematic collection, description, and analysis DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • It studies people, ethnic groups and other ethnic EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH formations, their ethno genesis, composition, EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • Data collection is often done through participant HISTORICAL RESEARCH observation, interviews, questionnaires, etc. PHENOMENOLOGICAL • The purpose of ethnographic research is to attempt to RESEARCH understand what is happening naturally in the setting and to interpret the data gathered to see what implications QUALITATIVE RESEARCH could be formed from the data. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 10. APPLIED RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Advantages EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . Disadvantages GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. HISTORICAL RESEARCH • Artificiality PHENOMENOLOGICAL • Feasibility RESEARCH • Unethical QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 11. APPLIED RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH groups of participants. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH The two variables(Independent versus Dependent variables). ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH variable. • Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . the DV. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. The two groups of participants (Control versus Experimental group). HISTORICAL RESEARCH • Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly) PHENOMENOLOGICAL assigns his/her sample to two different groups: the control group and the experimental (treatment group or clinical group). RESEARCH • The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no treatment), whereas the experimental group receives the QUALITATIVE RESEARCH manipulation of the IV QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 12. APPLIED RESEARCH EXPLORATORY RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH collection method and selection of subjects. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • The results of exploratory research are not usually useful EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . • Exploratory research is not typically generalizable to GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. the population at large. HISTORICAL RESEARCH • Exploratory research can be quite informal, relying on secondary research such as reviewing available PHENOMENOLOGICAL literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, RESEARCH management or competitors, and more formal approaches QUALITATIVE RESEARCH through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 13. APPLIED RESEARCH GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Grounded theory research is a research approach designed to CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation, DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Grounded theory is a research method that operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may appear to EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . be in contradiction to the scientific method. GROUNDED THEORY Four stages: RESEARCH. 1. Codes-Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered HISTORICAL RESEARCH 2. Concepts-Collections of codes of similar content that allows the PHENOMENOLOGICAL data to be grouped 3. Categories-Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to RESEARCH generate a theory 4. Theory-A collection of explanations that explain the subject of QUALITATIVE RESEARCH the research (hypotheses) QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 14. APPLIED RESEARCH HISTORICAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Historical research is research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Application • Historical research can show patterns that occurred in the past ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH and over time which can help us to see where we came from EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH and what kinds of solutions we have used in the past. • Understanding this can add perspective on how we examine EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . current events and educational practices. GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. The steps involved in the conduct of historical research HISTORICAL RESEARCH Here are the five steps: 1. Identification of the research topic and formulation of the PHENOMENOLOGICAL research problem or question. RESEARCH 2. Data collection or literature review 3. Evaluation of materials QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4. Data synthesis 5. Report preparation or preparation of the narrative exposition QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 15. APPLIED RESEARCH HISTORICAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Historical research gives a social scientist a better context for CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH making realistic decisions. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Strengths • Provides a comprehensive picture of historical trends ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • Uses existing information EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Provides evidence of on-going trends and problems EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . Limitations • Time-consuming GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • Resources may be hard to locate • Resources may be conflicting HISTORICAL RESEARCH • May not identify cause of a problem • Information may be incomplete, obsolete, inconclusive, or PHENOMENOLOGICAL inaccurate • Data restricted to what already exists RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 16. APPLIED RESEARCH PHENOMENLOGICAL RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH person ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • Phenomenology is concerned with the study of experience EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH from the perspective of the individual, ‘bracketing’ taken-for- granted assumptions and usual ways of perceiving. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . • They are based in a paradigm of personal knowledge and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. subjectivity, and emphasise the importance of personal HISTORICAL RESEARCH perspective and interpretation. PHENOMENOLOGICAL • As such they are powerful for understanding subjective RESEARCH experience, gaining insights into people’s motivations and actions, and cutting through the clutter of taken-for-granted QUALITATIVE RESEARCH assumptions and conventional wisdom. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 17. APPLIED RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH On a broader perspective, all researches CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH can be classified into two groups: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Qualitative Research EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • Quantitative Research HISTORICAL RESEARCH PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 18. APPLIED RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH Qualitative research is research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH meanings, attributes, and symbols ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour. The qualitative method investigates GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. HISTORICAL RESEARCH PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 19. APPLIED RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Advantages • It enables more complex aspects of a persons experience to CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH be studied • Fewer restriction or assumptions are placed on the data to DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH be collected. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • Not everything can be quantified, or quantified easily, Individuals can be studied in more depth EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH • Good for exploratory research and hypothesis generation • The participants are able to provide data in their own words EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . and in their own way GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. Disadvantages HISTORICAL RESEARCH • It is more difficult to determine the validity and reliability of PHENOMENOLOGICAL linguistic data • there is more subjectivity involved in analysing the data. RESEARCH • “Data overload” – open-ended questions can sometimes create lots of data, which can take along time to analyse! QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Time consuming QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
  • 20. APPLIED RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of any phenomena via statistical, mathematical or CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Quantitative research is generally made using scientific EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH methods, which can include: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . • The generation of models, theories and hypotheses GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • The development of instruments and methods for HISTORICAL RESEARCH measurement PHENOMENOLOGICAL • Experimental control and manipulation of variables RESEARCH • Collection of empirical data QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Modelling and analysis of data QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH • Evaluation of results
  • 21. APPLIED RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH BASIC RESEARCH Advantages • Quantitative research allows the researcher to measure and CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH analyse data. • The researcher is more objective about the findings of the DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH research. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH • Quantitative research can be used to test hypotheses in experiments because of its ability to measure data using EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH statistics. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH . Disadvantages GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH. • The main disadvantage of quantitative research is the context of the study or experiment is ignored. HISTORICAL RESEARCH • Quantitative research does not study things in a natural PHENOMENOLOGICAL setting or discuss the meaning things have for different people. RESEARCH • A large sample of the population must be studied for more accurate results QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH