Concept of occupational health and safety in nepal


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Concept of occupational health and safety in nepal

  1. 1. Concept of occupational healthand safety in Nepal1PREPARED BY:Samjhana Gurung(B)LA GRANDEE Internationalcollege, simalchour pokharaPresented with: Sagun PAudel
  2. 2. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHThe joint international labor organization committeeon Occupational health, 1950 defined occupationalhealth as:“The highest degree of physical, mental and socialwell-being of workers in all occupations.”It represents a dynamic equilibrium between theworker and his occupational environment.2
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  5. 5. INTRODUCTION OF OSH• OSH is the science ofanticipation, recognition, evaluation and control ofhazards arising in or from the workplace which couldimpair the health and well-being of workers, also impactsthe surrounding communities and the environment.• Though the International Labor Organization (ILO) hasmaintained and developed a system of internationallabor standards since 1919 which aimed at promotingopportunities for decent and productive work, inconditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity.5
  6. 6. CONT…• It is relatively new and very few industries maintainoccupational standards.• OSH is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with thesafety, health and welfare of the people at theirworkplace.• Although various institutions and individuals havedefined occupational safety and health differently butall of them agreed on the same meaning is thatprotecting and promoting the health and well-being ofthe workers as well as protecting the generalenvironment through preventive actions in theworkplace (Pun, 2011)6
  7. 7. Occupational health and safety is a discipline with abroad scope involving many specialized fields. In itsbroadest sense, it should aim at:• PROMOTION and MAINTENANCE of the well being ofworkers in all occupations• PREVENTION of departures from health caused byworking conditions• PROTECTION from risks resulting from factorsadverse to their health• PLACING and MAINTENANCE of the worker in anenvironment adapted to their physiological andpsychological conditionInternational Labour Organization: 1950 7
  8. 8. • The concept of occupational safety and health is stillnew in Nepal.• It has not been a hot agenda in industrial field whereonly about 7 percent of the labour force are involved(CBS, 2009) where this provision is insignificant inother sectors other than industry• The high illiteracy among the workers, lack ofawareness, poor performance or inattention of theconcerned government authorities inimplementation of OSH related policies and activitieshave shadowed these issues.8
  9. 9. • According to Nepal labor force survey, 2008, the totalnumber of currently employed persons increasedfrom 9463 thousand in 1998/99 to 11779 thousandin 2008.• Moreover based on the classification ofindustry, 73.9 percent of people are working in theagricultural sector and 26.1 percent in non-agriculture.• It is estimated that each year approximately 20000workers meet accidents at workplace which lead toabout 200 lives lost in Nepal.9
  10. 10. Table I. Trends of industrial injuries10Joshi SK et al./ International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Vol 1(2011) 19 –26
  11. 11. Table: 2 Currently Employed Population aged 15years and More by Industry11
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  13. 13. The major causes of occupational hazards found indifferent work sectors were:1. Unsafe working conditions2. Lack of supervision and training3. Use of old machinery and equipment4. Lack of sufficient maintenance5. Bad house-keeping practices6. Violation of safety rules7. Overcrowded production units with very congestedspace13
  14. 14. Some work activities were noted to have high risks;1. Working with machine and equipment2. Use of electricity3. Building and Construction works4. Use of chemicals in industries , various services andagriculture5. Dusty worksites6. Congested and dark work places.14
  15. 15. Barriers for sound OSH condition in Nepal :1. Lack of knowledge and awareness among workers.2. Lack of awareness and commitment in employers andmanagement.3. Fear of change and cost increase(management)4. Poor consultation system5. Majority of untrained people both in management andlabour6. No safety-friendly work culture (both workers andmanagement)7. Lack of research and data- base on occupational diseasesand health hazards.15
  16. 16. KEY PRINCIPLES OF OHS:1. All workers have protection rights.2. OHS policies must be established.3. There is need for consultation with the socialpartners ( that is ,employers and workers ) andother stakeholders4. Prevention and protection must be the aim of OHSprogrammes and policies5. Information is vital for the development andimplementation of effective programmes andpolicies.16
  17. 17. 6. Health promotion is the central element of occupationalhealth practices.7. Occupational health services covering all workers should beestablished.8. Compensation, rehabilitation and curative services must bemade available to workers who suffers occupationalinjuries , accidents and work related diseases.9 .Education and training are vital components of safe, healthy working environments.10. Workers ,employers and competent authorities havecertain responsibilities, duties and obligations17
  18. 18. Application of OHS• Works plays a central role in people’s lives. Sincemost workers spend at least eight hours a day in thework place, whether it is on plantation , in anoffice, factory etc . So that work environmentsshould be safe and healthy.• Everyday workers all over the world are faced with amultitude of health hazards , such as:dusts, gases, noise, vibration, extreme temperaturesetc.18
  19. 19. Applied in:• To improve the fundamental rights of workers.• For the establishment of the OHS polices.• To get compensation,rehabilation and curativeservices.• In training of the workers , safety education, riskreduction and preventive measures of differentdiseases.• To inform the authorities to enforce the laws andregulations regarding occupational setting.19
  20. 20. Also it’s application on:• Occupational medicine• Occupational hygiene• Public health• Safety engineering• Health physics• Ergonomics• Toxicology• Epidemiology• Environmental health• Public policy• Industrial sociology• Medical sociology• Social law• Labour law and occupational health psycology20
  21. 21. REFERENCES• Ali, B. O. (2001). Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety.Genava: ILO.• Carter, W. S. (2010). Introducing occupational health in an emerging economy: ANepal experience. Retrieved from:• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (1999). Nepal labour force survey 1998/99.Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2003). Population monograph of Nepal I.Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2008). Census of manufacturing establishments2006/2007. Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2009). Nepal labour force survey 2008.Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2010). Survey of small manufacturingestablishments (2008-2009). Kathmandu: CBS.
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