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  1. 1. PERSONALITYGeneral Psychology (1/23) C. Sagarbarria
  2. 2. PersonalityPersonality - the unique andrelatively stable ways in whichpeople think, feel, and behave“Characteristic patterns ofbehavior, thought, and emotion thatdetermine a person’s adjustment toenvironment”
  3. 3. THREE FORCES IN THESTUDY OF PERSONALITYThe Psychodynamic Perspective Focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personalityThe Behaviorist Perspective Focuses on the effect of the environment on behaviorThe Humanist Perspective Focuses on the role of each person’s real-life experiences and choices in personality development
  4. 4. The Man and the Couch: Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreud’s Psychoanalytic ApproachJung’s* Analytic PsychologyAdler’s* Individual PsychologyHorney’s* Socio-Cultural Approach * - called Neo-Freudians
  5. 5. Sigmund FreudPsychoanalytic Approach
  6. 6. Freud’s Psychoanalytic ApproachFreud believed that the mind wasdivided into three parts: Preconscious Conscious Unconscious
  7. 7. 3 structures of Personality: ID - consists of instincts and urges , operates on pleasure principle (If it feels good, do it) EGO- rational and logical, works on the reality principle (If it feels good, do it - but only if you can get away with it ) SUPEREGO - houses the conscience, the moral compass of our personality (why even bother, you’re gonna get caught anyway)
  8. 8. Structures of Personality
  9. 9. The Angel,The Devil, and MeHow the 3 structures of our personality work together
  10. 10. DefenseMechanismsMethods employedby the ego to reduce the conflict andanxiety brought on by the Id and the Superego
  11. 11. RepressionMost powerful andmost commondefense mechanismPush unacceptableimpulses andthoughts to theunconscious mindand out ofawareness
  12. 12. RationalizationWhen the egoprovides a goodreason forbehavior – areason which maynot be the actualtruth behind thebehavior
  13. 13. ProjectionWhen we fail toaccept our ownshortcomings,we project themonto others andsee these traitsin others.
  14. 14. Reaction FormationWhen wetransformunacceptableimpulses bygivingexpression toits opposite
  15. 15. DenialRefusal toacknowledge orrecognize athreateningsituationwhen we refuse toaccept thatsomething ishappening
  16. 16. DisplacementWhen we shift unacceptable feelingsfrom one object to another, moreacceptable object
  17. 17. Sublimation A type of displacement When the ego replaces unacceptable impulse with a socially approved course of action
  18. 18. RegressionOccurs whenwe revert backto the way weused to behavewhen we wereyounger
  19. 19. Compensation The process of concealing oroffsetting a psychological difficultyby developing in another direction.
  20. 20. Daydreaming Retreatinginto fantasylife inresponse tostress
  21. 21. The Development of Personality (Psychosexual) Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage Genital stage
  22. 22. Carl Gustave JungAnalytic Psychology
  23. 23. Emphasized the greater role of theunconscious Personal Unconscious& Part of the mind that is rarely accessible to awareness Collective Unconscious The impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind that is shared by all human beings
  24. 24. Archetypes Emotionally laden ideas and images in the Collective Unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning Emerge in Art, Religion, Literature, and dreams
  25. 25. Anima (Woman - feminine side of a man)Animus (Man - masculine side of awoman)Mandala (Self - individuality)Persona (our alter-ego)Shadow (Darker Self - the darker,immoral self)
  26. 26. Alfred AdlerIndividual Psychology
  27. 27. Individual Psychology The primary concept of Individual Psychology is inferiority and the crux of human condition is the struggle against inferiority and the attainment of superiority
  28. 28. Inferiority Complex Exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacySuperiority Complex Exaggerated feelings of self- importance, assumed mainly to mask very strong feelings of inferiority
  29. 29. KarenHorneySocio-Cultural Approach
  30. 30. Disagreed with Freud’s Penis Envy Countered it with her own concept of womb envyAs children, we develop a sense of basic anxiety People whose parents give them love, affection, and security overcome this anxiety Those with less secure upbringing develop neurotic tendencies
  31. 31. moving towards people seek love, support, safety – being dependent on othersmoving away from people becoming more independentmoving against people becoming competitive and domineering - aggressive
  32. 32. BEHAVIORAL APPROACHThe Associative Learning ApproachThe Social Learning Approach
  33. 33. B. F. SkinnerAssociative Learning -Operant Conditioning
  34. 34. B.F. Skinner Major influence and impact on mainstream PsychologyPersonality A collection of observable and overt or outward behaviors Behaviors are learned through reward and punishment experiences
  35. 35. AlbertBanduraSocial Learning Approach
  36. 36. People learn new behavior throughovert reinforcement or punishment,via observational learning of thesocial factors in their environment.Learning can take place even if wehave not experienced (punished orrewarded) it ourselves - vicariouslearning
  37. 37. The Phenomenologicalor Humanistic Approach Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow
  38. 38. Carl Rogers✤ Real and Ideal Self✤ Conditional andUnconditional Positive Regard
  39. 39. Real Self Who we really are The “us” as a result of our experiencesIdeal Self The person we would like to beThe greater the discrepancy or differencebetween the real and ideal self, the moremaladjusted the person is.
  40. 40. Mismatch = Ideal Self Real Self Anxiety Ideal Self RealClose Match = Harmony
  41. 41. Unconditional Positive Regard Blanket acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does.Conditional Positive Regard Acceptance and support of a person but with conditions.
  42. 42. Abraham MaslowHierarchy of Needs
  43. 43. Proposed a Hierarchy of NeedsAscending from basic biologicalneeds to more complexpsychological motivations
  44. 44.