Theories Personality & Assessment Modified by Elizabeth T Santosa, M.Psi, psi.
+ Definition of Personality? Personality refers to the relatively enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another and that lead people to act in a consistent and predictable manner, both in different situations and over extended periods of time. Personality is defined as: the enduring or lasting patterns of behavior and thought (across time and situation).
+ PersonalityFour Major Perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
+ Sigmund Freud University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate Specialized in Nervous Disorders : Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause. (1856-1939)
+ Sigmund Freud What is the structure and development of personality, according to Sigmund Freud and his successors (i.e.,psychoanalysts)? According to psychoanalysts, much of behavior is caused by parts of personality which are found in the unconscious and of which we are unaware. unaware Freud’s 3 levels of awareness/consciousness: the conscious mind; the preconscious mind; and the unconscious mind.
+ Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious “the mind is like an iceberg -- mostly hidden” “the mind is like an iceberg mostly hidden”Conscious Awareness Unconscioussmall part above surface below the surface (Preconscious) (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression Banishing unacceptable thoughts and passions to unconscious: Dreams and Slips
+ Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Theory of Personality Three levels of consciousness: Conscious mind: mind things we are focusing on. Preconscious mind: mind things are are not currently aware of but which we could focus on. Unconscious mind: mind that which we are unaware of.
+ Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Theory of Personality Freud’s theory suggest that personality is composed of the id, the ego, and the superego. id ego superego id: id the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses. ego: ego restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of the individual and to help the person to be a member of society. superego: superego the rights and wrongs of society and consists of the conscience and the ego-ideal.
+Freud and Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego Ego Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how Id we ought to behave
+ Freud’s Theory: “the ID” The id uses the most primitive of thinking process. Basic biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection). The id operates on the Pleasure Principle. Principle Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!” NOW! The id operates completely at an unconscious level. No direct contact with reality. The id has 2 major instincts: Eros: life instinct = motivates people to focus on pleasure- Eros seeking tendencies (e.g., sexual urges). Thanatos: death instinct = motivates people to use aggressive Thanatos urges to destroy. The energy for the id’s instincts comes from the libido, (the libido energy storehouse).
+ Freud’s Theory: “the Ego” Theego consists of a conscious faculty for perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality. The ego acts as a mediator between the id and the superego. The ego is partly conscious. Deals with the demands of reality. Makes rational decisions.
+ Freud’s Theory: “the Ego” The ego serves the ID: The rational part of personality that maintains contact with reality. Governed by ‘Reality Principle’ “What consequences are there to my behavior?” The ego is the Executive of the personality The ego controls higher mental processes. Reasoning, problem solving. The ego uses these higher mental processes to help satisfy the urges of the ID.
+ Freud’s Theory: “the Superego” Superego: Superego the moral part of personality. Internalized rules of parents and society. Superego consists of two parts: Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.” Conscience Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.” Ideal Superego: constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g., murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might get caught. Superego: Superego partly conscious, partly unconscious.
+ Freud: superego, id, and ego According to Freud, an individual’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the interaction of the id, the superego, and the ego.
+ Freud’s Theory of Personality: The id, the ego, and the superego are continually in conflict with one another. This conflict generates anxiety. anxiety If the ego did not effectively handle the resulting anxiety, people would be so overwhelmed with anxiety that they would not be able to carry on with the tasks of everyday living. The ego tries to control anxiety (i.e., to reduce anxiety) through the use of ego defense mechanisms. mechanisms
+ Ego Defense Mechanisms: Defense Mechanisms Ego Id When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is AnxietyEgo protects itself viaDefense Mechanisms Super Ego Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality
+ Ego Defense Mechanisms Definition: Definition An defense mechanism is a psychology tendency that the ego uses to help prevent people from becoming overwhelmed by any conflict (and resulting anxiety) among the id, the ego, and the superego. Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level: level We are not aware of them during the time that we are actually using them. However, we may later become aware of their previous operation and use.
+ Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Repression: Repression pushing unacceptable and anxiety- producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed material can be memories or unacceptable impulses. A rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack. Regression: Regression acting in ways characteristic of earlier life stages/earlier stage of personality. A young adult, anxious on a trip to his parents/ home, sits in the corner reading comic books, as he often did in grade school.
+ Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Reaction formation: replacing an anxiety-producing formation feeling with its exact opposite, typically going overboard; repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposites. A man who is anxious about his interest in gay men begins dating women several times a week. Rationalization: Rationalization creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for behavior is not accepted by ego. A student cheats on an exam, explaining that cheating is legitimate on an unfair examination.
+ Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Denial: Denial claiming and believing that something which is actually true is false. A person disbelieves that she is age, asserting that “I am not getting older.” Displacement: Displacement redirecting emotional feelings (e.g., anger) to a substitute target; involves directing unacceptable impulses onto a less threatening object/person. A husband, angry at the way his boss treated him, screams at his children. Instead of telling your professor what you really think of her, you tailgate and harass a slow driver on your way home from school.
+ Freud’s Theory: Defense Mechanisms Projection: Projection attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in terms of one’s own personal conflicts. An employee at a store, tempted to steal some merchandise, suspects that other employees are stealing. Sublimation: Sublimation substitute socially acceptable behavior for unacceptable impulses. Playing video games instead of getting in a fight.
+ Freud:Stages of Personality Development Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality suggests that personality develops through a series of stages, each of which is associated with a major stages biological function. More specifically, Freud theorized that as people age, they pass through several systematic stages of psychosexual development in their personality.
+ Psychosexual Stages of Development are Source of Unconscious Conflicts. Thestages of personality development involve critical events that occur in every child’s life. Ateach level, there is a conflict between pleasure and reality. reality The resolution of this conflict determines personality. At any stage, “a fixation” can occur: occur If needs are either under-gratified or over-gratified, we become fixated at a particular stage. stage Each stage also involves an erogenous zone. zone Parts of the body that involve sexual pleasure.
Freud and Personality Development“personality forms during the first few years of life,“personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim. Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex” (Identification & Gender Identity) Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward othersStrong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3
+ Freud’s Stages of Personality Development: Oralstage: the oral state is the first period, occurring stage during the first year of life. Anal stage: next comes the anal stage, lasting from stage approximately age 1 to age 3. Phallic stage: the phallic stages follows, with interest stage focusing on the genitals. Latency period: then follows the latency period lasting period until puberty. Genitalstage: after puberty, people move into the stage genital stage, a period of mature sexuality.
+ (1) Oral stage of development: Time period: Birth to 18 months: Erogenous zone is mouth. mouth Gratification through sucking and swallowing. Oral fixation has two possible outcomes. Oral receptive personality: personality Preoccupied with eating/drinking. Reduce tension through oral activity. eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails Passive and needy; sensitive to rejection. Oral aggressive personality: personality Hostile and verbally abusive to others.
+ (2) Anal stage of development: Time period: 1 1/2 to 3 years of age. Erogenous zone is the anus. Conflict surrounds toilet training. Anal fixation has two possible outcomes. Anal retentive personality. personality Stingy, compulsive orderliness, stubborn, perfectionistic. Anal expulsive personality. personality Lack of self control, messy, careless.
+ (3) Phallic stage of development: Time period: 3 to 6 years. Erogenous zone is the genitals: self-stimulation of the genitals produces pleasure. At age 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage, children experience the Oedipal conflict (boys)/the Electra conflict (girls)--a process through which they learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent as possible. Oedipus complex (boys) vs Electra complex (girls) Child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and wishes to replace the same sex parent.
+ (3) Phallic stage of development: Oedipus complex (little boys): Castration anxiety: Son believes father knows about his desire for mom. Fears dad will castrate him. Represses his desire and defensively identifies with dad.
+ (3) Phallic stage (continued): Electra complex (little girls): Penis envy: Daughter is initially attached to mom. Shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis. She desires dad whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child). child) Represses her desire for dad. incorporates the values of her mother accepts her inherent “inferiority” in society
+ (4) Latency Period: During the latency period, little girls and little boys try to socialize only with members of their own gender. Freudposits that children do this so as to help minimize the awareness of “sexuality.” Thus, they continue the process of sexual repression that began in the previous stage (for those who successfully made it through the Oedipal Complex/Electra Complex).
+ (5) Genital Stage: When adolescence begin puberty, they enter the 5th stage of psychosexual development. They develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., pubic hair). The onset of the physical sexual characteristics “re-awakens” people sexual urges, and thus they are no longer able to successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and urges. They begin searching for a marital mate, with whom they can share sex and intimacy.
+ Summary of Freud (on personality): Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has provoked a number of criticisms. • a lack of supportive scientific data; • the theory’s inadequacy in making predictions; and • its limitations owing to the restricted population on which it is based. Still, the theory remains popular. • For instance, the neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorists built upon Freud’s work, although they placed greater emphasis on the role of the ego and paid greater attention to social factors in determining behavior.
+ Psychoanalysis: Freud and Personality Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theories Current research the “best of his time” contradicts or were they simply many of Freud’s incorrect? specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Slips of the tongue are Dreams may not be likely competing unconscious “nodes” in memory network drives and wishes
+ Summary: Freud and Personality Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses Few Objective Observations Few Hypotheses (Freud’s theories based on his recollections & interpretations of patients’ free associations, dreams & slips o’ the tongue) Does Not PREDICT Behavior or Traits
+ 4 Types of Personality Theories: (1). Psychodynamic approaches to personality. (2). Humanistic approaches to personality. (3). Trait approaches to personality. (4). Social Cognitive approaches to personality.
+ Psychodynamic Personality(1)Theories: Source of information about personality: personality • Obtained from expert analyst from people in therapy. Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • unconscious internal conflict associated with childhood experiences. • Also, unconscious conflicts between pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints. Outlook on humans: humans • negative. Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • very comprehensive.
+ Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic) Theories:Many are called Neo-Freudians. All place less emphasis on sex. Neo-Freudians Carl Jung: Jung Personal vs. Collective Unconscious. Unconscious Balance between introversion and extroversion. extroversion Alfred Adler: Adler Strivingfor superiority = motivation to master environment. Notion of an Inferiority Complex. Complex KarenHorney: Horney Personality is Cultural rather than biological. biological
+(2) Humanistic PersonalityTheories: Source of information about personality: personality • obtained from self-reports from the general population and people in therapy. Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • self concepts, • self-actualizing tendencies. • conscious feelings about oneself (based on one’s previous experiences). Outlook on humans: humans • positive. Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • fairly comprehensive.
The Humanistic Perspective Maslow’s Roger’sSelf-Actualizing Person-Centered Person Perspective “Healthy” rather than “Sick” Individual as greater than the sum of test scores
+ Humanistic Personality Theories: Maslow and Rogers Humanistic approach (Third Force): Rejected Freud’s pessimistic view of personality. Rejected Behaviorist’s mechanistic view. More optimistic/positive about human nature. Humans are free and basically good. Humans are inner-directed. Everyone has the potential for healthy growth. Health growth involves Self actualization: “Be all you can be.” Given the right environmental conditions, we can reach our full potential.
Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective People are basically good with actualizing tendencies. Given the right environmental conditions, we will develop to our full potentials Genuineness, Acceptance, Empathy Self Concept central feature Concept: of personality (+ or -)
+ Humanistic Personality Theories: Carl Rogers Self-concept: Self-concept our image or perception of ourselves(Real Self versus Ideal Self). Self) We have a need for positive regard/approval from others. regard Conditions of worth or conditional positive regard. The conditions under which other people will approve of us. We change our behavior to obtain approval. What we need is: Unconditional positive regard. regard Anxiety signifies that we are not being true to our ideal self. Well-adjusted persons: self-concept & experience. Poorly adjusted person: self-concept & experience.
+ Maslow’s Hierarchy of human motives: one must satisfy lower needs before one satisfies higher needs.
Humanistic Personality Theories:+ Abraham Maslow Self-actualization is the culmination of a lifetime of inner- directed growth and improvement: • Challenging ourselves to the fullest. • Can you identify a self-actualized individual? • Characteristics of the self-actualized person: person Creative and open to new experiences. Committed to a cause or a higher goal. Trusting and caring of others, yet not dependent. Have the courage to act on their convictions.
(3) Trait Personality Theories: + Source of information about personality: personality • obtained from observation of behavior and questionnaire responses from the general population as well as from people in therapy. Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings • stable internal characteristics; • some emphasize genetic basis. Outlook on humans: humans • neutral - neither positive nor negative. Comprehensiveness of theory: theory • not very comprehensive.
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): + Traitapproaches have tried to identify the most basic and relatively enduring dimensions along which people differ from one another--dimensions known as traits. How many trait dimensions are there? How can we measure these trait dimensions? Where do these trait dimensions originate?
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont):+ Allport Allport: Allport Most important personality traits are those that reflect our values. Allport suggested that there are 3 kinds of traits: • cardinal: a single personality trait that directs most of a cardinal person’s activities (e.g., greed, lust, kindness). • central: a set of major characteristics that make up the central core of a person’s personality. • secondary: less important personality traits that do not secondary affect behavior as much as central and cardinal traits do.
(3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): Eysenck Hans Eysenck: found two (2) major trait dimensions: • introversion versus extroversion (quiet versus sociable). • Neuroticism versus emotional stability (moody versus calm).
+ (3) Trait Personality Theories (cont): Cattell’s Theory of Personality: Cattell’s Trait Theory: Distinguished 3 types of traits: Dynamic. Ability. Temperament. Also: Surface Traits: Less important to personality. Source Traits: More important basic underlying traits. Cattell identified 16 basic traits. • He developed the 16PF to measure these traits.
+ Trait Personality Theories (cont):(3) Recently personality theorists have begun to converge on the view that there are 5 basic personality dimensions: 1: emotional stability versus neuroticism: calm, secure, self-satisfied VS anxious, insecure, self-pitying. 2: extraversion versus introversion: sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS retiring, sober, reserved. 3: openness versus close-mindedness: imaginative, independent VS practical, conforming. 4: agreeableness versus disagreeableness: kind, trusting, helpful VS ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative. 5: conscientiousness versus undependable: organized, careful, disciplined VS disorganized, careless, impulsive.
+ Five Factor Model of Traits The Big Five • Calm/Anxious Emotional Stability • Secure/Insecure • Sociable/Retiring Extraversion • Fun Loving/Sober • Imaginative/Practical Openness • Independent/Conforming • Soft-Hearted/Ruthless Agreeableness • Trusting/Suspicious • Organized/Disorganized Conscientiousness • Careful/Careless
+ Trait Theories of Personality: Summary Traits: Traits Characteristicsor typical ways of acting: Consistency: across situations, over time. Distinctiveness: each personality is unique. Explain why individuals behave in certain ways. How many traits are there, and what are they? Not easy to answer; little consensus.
+ Assessing Personality Traits How can we assess traits?(aim to simplify a person’s behavior patterns) Personality InventoriesMMPI:• most widely used personality inventory.• assess psychological disorders (not normal traits).• empirically derived - test items selected based upon how well they discriminate between groups of traits.
+ Do traits exist? The Trait-Situation Debate Walter Mischel (1968) argued that: Behavior is not consistent across time or situation. If no consistency, not much point in arguing for “personality.” Thus, “personality” is an illusion. Situationism: Mischel believed that behavior is influenced more by the situation than any internal “trait.” Person x situation interactionism: Both (a) internal traits and (b) the situation we are in are important determinants of behavior.
+ (4) Social-Cognitive (Learning) Approaches to personality Source of information about personality: Personality Theories: Obtained from experiments, observations of behavior, and questionnaire responses from the general population. Cause of behavior, thoughts, and feelings: feelings •reciprocal influence between people (cognitions and behavior) and their environmental situations, colored by their perceptions of control. Outlook on humans: humans •neutral: neither positive nor negative. Comprehensiveness of theory: theory •not very comprehensive.
Social-Cognitive-Learning+ Perspective Behavior learned through conditioning and observation What we think about our situation affects our behavior Interaction of Environment and Intellect
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Social Learning Theory Bandura: Bandura Theoretical origins in behaviorism. Emphasizes the role of learning in personality. Classical Conditioning. Operant Conditioning . Modeling. Instead of studying what’s going on inside the person (traits), study what is going on outside the person (environment). How does the environment shape personality?
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Social Learning Theory Bandura also emphasized the importance of cognition in personality development. People develop a sense of self-efficacy: self-efficacy Our beliefs about our ability to achieve goals. Individuals with higher self-efficacy: accept greater challenges. try harder to meet challenges. Bandura also discusses the notion of Reciprocal Determinism: Determinism The individual and the environment continually influence one another.
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Reciprocal Determination Personal/ Cognitive Factors Environment Behavior Factors Internal World + External World = Us Internal World + External World = Us
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Personal ControlInternal Locus of Control:You pretty much control your own destinyExternal Locus of Control:Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny.Methods of Study:• Correlate feelings of control with behavior.• Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of control and noting the consequences and effects.
+ Social-Cognitive Personality Theories: Outcomes of Personal Control Learned Helplessness:Uncontrollable Perceived Generalized bad events lack of control helpless behavior Important Issues: • Nursing Homes • Prisons •Colleges
+ Personality Assessment Personality assessment involves the techniques for systematically gathering information about a person in order to understand and predict behavior. Goal of personality assessment: to obtain reliable, assessment valid measures of individual differences that will permit the accurate prediction of behavior.
+ How do we measure “Personality”? (1) Interview: Interview Ask the person about themselves. Obtain information that reveals personality. (2)Behavioral Observation: Observation Watch the individual’s behavior in an actual or simulated situation. Personality Tests: Tests (3) Objective tests (questionnaire tests). (4) Projective tests.
+ How do we measure personality? (2) Behavioral assessment Behavioral assessment is based on the principles of learning theory. Behavioral assessment employs direct measurement of behavior to determine the characteristics related to personality.
+ How do we measure personality? (3) Objective Test Assessment Objective personality tests (self-report questionnaires) present the test taker with a number of specific items to which she is asked to respond, either on paper or on a computer screen. Self-report measures ask people about a sample range of their behaviors. These reports are used to infer the presence of particular personality characteristics.
+ How do we measure personality? (3) Objective Test Assessment Examples of objective personality measures: the MMPI (the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). the 16 PF (the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire). the NEO-PI (the NEO Personality Inventory). The most commonly used self-report measure is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI- 2), designed to differentiate people with specific 2) sorts of psychological difficulties from normal individuals.
+ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Mostwidely used personality instrument. Used in clinical and employment settings. MMPI-2 Has several different scales (multiphasic). MMPI sample items: ‘I usually feel that life is worthwhile and interesting (FALSE) = Depression. ‘I seem to hear things that other people can’t hear’ (TRUE) = Schizophrenia. Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem: Extreme suspiciousness may indicate paranoia.
+ How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment A projective personality test is one in which the subject is given an ambiguous stimulus and asked to respond spontaneously. pictures or inkblots. No clear answer. The ambiguous stimulus allows test takers to project their own needs, dreams, feelings into their response. The observer’s responses to the stimulus are then used to infer information about the observer’s personality.
+ How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued) All projective tests are based on the projective hypothesis which states that the individuals response to an ambiguous stimulus represents a projection of his or her own inner, often unconscious, feelings and needs. Indirect method of personality assessment: Based on psychoanalytic assumptions: assumptions Personality is mostly unconscious. People are unaware of contents of unconscious.
+ How do we measure personality? (4) Projective Test Assessment (continued): The 2 most frequently used projective tests are: • the Rorschach: reactions to inkblots are employed to Rorschach classify personality types. • the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): stories about (TAT) ambiguous pictures are used to draw inferences about the storyteller’s personality.
+ Rorschach Inkblot Test Most popular projective technique. Respond to inkblot: “What could this be?”