Personality ByMohamed Abdelghani Ass. Lecturer of Psychiatry
Definition Personality is a dynamic organisation that creates a person‟s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings. Dynamic Organisation aims to ongoing readjustments and adaptation.
Theories of personality I. Temperament theory II. Kretschmer Types of physique III. Sheldons Body Personality IV. Jung‟s Introversion and Extroversion Attitudes V. Trait theories VI. The psychoanalytic theory VII. Behavioural and learning theory
I. Temperament theory “Four humors” theory. By the Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC). Certain human moods, emotions and behaviors were caused by body fluids (called "humors"): 1. Blood “sanguine”: optimism 2. Yellow bile “choleric”: irritability 3. Black bile “melancholic”: depression 4. Phlegmatic: sluggishness
II. Kretschmer Types of physique Three main body types: A. Asthenic: (thin, small, weak) associated with introversion and timidity, resembling a milder form of the negative symptoms of schizophrenics. B. Athletic: (muscular, large–boned) epileptic. C. Pyknic: (stocky, fat) friendly, interpersonally dependent, and gregarious, are predisposed toward manic-depressive illness.
III. Sheldons Body Personality Three personalities based on their physical make-up. Endomorph Ectomorph Mesomorph• Physically quite round„. • Opposite of the • Between the round• Quite a lot of fat spread Endomorph. endomorph and the thin across the body. • Narrow shoulders and ectomorph.• Wide hips and narrow hips. • More desirable body. shoulders • Very little body fat.• Sociable • Self-conscious • Adventurous• Fun-loving • Private • Courageous• Love of food • Introverted • Indifferent to what• Tolerant • Inhibited others think or want• Even-tempered • Socially anxious • Assertive/bold• Good humored • Artistic • Competitive• Relaxed • Intense • With a desire for• With a love of comfort • Emotionally restrained power/dominance• And has a need for • Thoughtful affection
IV. Jung’s Introversion and Extroversion AttitudesA. Introvert: Most aware of his or her inner world. More concerned with subjective appraisal. Gives more consideration to fantasies and dreams.B. Extrovert: Characterized by the outward movement of psychic energy. Places more importance on objectivity. Gains more influence from the surrounding. environment than by inner cognitive processes.
V. Trait theories A trait is a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways. The combination and interaction of various traits forms a personality that is unique to each individual. Theories: 1) Gordon Allport‟s Trait Theory 2) Raymond Cattell‟s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire 3) Eysenck‟s Three Dimensions of Personality 4) The Five-Factor Theory of Personality
1) Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory Gordon Allport categorized traits into three levels:A. Cardinal Traits: Dominate an individual‟s whole life. The person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits. e.g.: hatred may have been a cardinal trait of Hitler.B. Central Traits: The general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. While not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. E.g.: intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits.C. Secondary Traits: Traits that often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. E.g.: getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.
2) Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Raymond Cattell reduced the number of personality traits from Allport‟s initial list of over 4,000 down to 171. Then, using “factor analysis”, he eventually reduced his list to just 16 key personality traits. According to Cattell, these 16 traits are the source of all human personality. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).
3) Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality Introversion/Extroversion: o Introversion focuses attention on inner experiences, while extroversion focuses attention outward on other people and the environment. o A person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extroversion might be sociable and outgoing. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: o Individuals who are high on this trait tend to be irritable, sensitive, ambivalent or anxious. Psychoticism: o Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non- empathetic and manipulative.
4) The Five-Factor Theory of Personality Both Cattell‟s and Eysenck‟s theory have been the subject of considerable research. As a result, a new trait theory often referred to as the "Big Five" theory emerged. This five-factor model of personality represents five core traits that interact to form human personality. These include: 1. Extroversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientiousness 4. Neuroticism 5. Openness
VI. The psychoanalytic theory “Freudian theory”1. The id (biological): • Completely unconscious. • Acts under the pleasure principle ,immediate gratification, not willing to compromise. • Generates all of the personality‟s energy.2. Superego (social) • The moralist and idealistic part of the persoality. • Operates on “ideal principle”. • Begins forming at 4-5 yrs of age, • Formed form environment and others (society, family), Internalized conventions and morals.3. Ego (psychological) • Resides in all levels of awareness. • Operates under “reality principle”. • Attempts negotiation between Id and Superego to satisfy both realistically.
Conflicts of Personality Components Conflicts between the Id, Superego and Ego arise in unconscious mind. They come out to conscioussness in various ways: Slips of tongue (“Freudian slip”) Dreams Jokes Anxiety Defense Mechanisms… The conflict between biological drive and social inhibition produces anxiety. Ego throws up defences to control and handle the anxiety effectively.
VII. Behavioural and learning theory Behaviorists: 1. Traits don‟t have roots in the person. 2. They are the products of environmental forces and learning.• John Watson (1878-1958): 1) Founder of the school of “Behaviorism”. 2) The first to study how the process of learning affects our behavior.• Skinner and other behaviorists: If the environment is sufficiently changed, aspects of personality will be changed or replaced by others.