The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a
person responds to his or her environment.
— Every person is unique having particular
— Human personality is an interesting blend of
behavior and characteristics.
— In fact everybody likes to admire people who
have great personality regardless of age, sex
and financial status.
— Possessing great personality might help you
to reach ultimate goal.
NATURE OF PERSONALITY
Personality reflects individual differences-
— Each individual has a special set of inner characteristics,
and is thus unique by himself.
— Some individual are highly sociable whereas some are
low on sociability.
— Personality is a useful concept because it enables us to
categorize consumers into different groups on the basis
of one or even several traits.
Personality is consistent and enduring-
— Marketers cannot change consumers personalities to
conform to their products. However, if they know which
personality characteristics influence specific con-sumer
responses, they can attempt to appeal to the relevant
traits inherent in their target group of consumers.
— An individual's personality tends to be both consistent
— Personality is only one of a combination of factors that
influence how a consumer behaves.
Personality can change-
— Under certain circumstances personalities change.
— An individual's personality may be altered by major life
events, such as the birth of a child, the death of a
loved one, a divorce, or a significant career promotion.
— There are changes in personality as a man matures
— We find many aggressive persons mellow down as
they advance in years.
•PROPOSED BY SIGMUND FREUD AN AUSTRIAN
NEUROLOGIST WHO BECAME KNOWN AS THE
FOUNDING FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS.
Theory stated as
“Unconscious needs or drives
are at the heart of human
“Human motivation is a result of
unconscious needs and drives”
There are 3 elements of personality
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks
Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and
I want a
Eat a small
•Sigmund Freud was born May 6,
•He died September 23, 1939
The Basic Structure of Personality
In Freudian theory, the mind is structured into two
main parts: the conscious and unconscious mind. The
conscious mind includes all the things we are aware of
or can easily bring into awareness. The unconscious
mind, on the other hand, includes all of the things
outside of our awareness – all of the wishes, desires,
hopes, urges and memories that lie outside of
awareness yet continue to influence behavior. Freud
compared the mind to an iceberg. The tip of the
iceberg that is actually visible above the water
represents just a tiny portion of the mind, while the
huge expanse of ice hidden underneath the water
represents the much larger unconscious.
The mind is made up of three parts:
The Id - Works on the pleasure principle. This is the part of us that wants what
is most gratifying at the time, that contains all the innate drives.
The Ego - Works on the reality principle. This is the part that knows that is
rational to do and decides what to do, but has to satisfy the Id and Super-ego.
The Super-ego - Works on the morality principle. This is the part that wants us
to do what is moral and right - it has been compared to the voice of our
parents or society.
The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate
gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not
satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension.
For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an
immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life,
because it ensures that an infant's needs are met. If the infant is hungry
or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing
with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and
ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner
acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious,
preconscious, and unconscious mind.
The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the
aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that
we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego
provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to
emerge at around age five.
There are two parts of the superego:
•The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors
include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying
these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.
•The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents
and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences,
punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all
unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic
standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the
conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego
With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise
between the id, ego and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to
refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A
person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these
pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can
become too unyielding or too disrupting.
According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance
between the id, the ego, and the superego.
MEHAK MEMON ROLL NO # 33
Neo-Freudian personality theory
Neo-freudian Personality Theory
• First, the Neo-Freudian was born in Germany
1945 by the German psychiatrist Harald
• Social relationships are fundamental to the
– formation and development of personality
• Three theorists suggest this theory:
• Alfred Adler
• Harry Stack Sullivan
• Karen Horney
• Alfred Adler:
Style of life
Feelings of inferiority
striving for superiority
• Harry Stack Sullivan:
They try to rewarding relationship with
establish relationships with others to
• Karen Horney :
child-parent relationship & tries to conquer
Individuals can be classified
into 3 major groups:
• Compliant: move toward others.
• Aggressive: move against others.
• Detached: move away from others.
• They move towards with others i.e One who
desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by
• Become dependent on others.
• Aggressive Individuals:
They move against others i.e. win, place himself
as only one.
• competes with others, desires to excel and win
• Become aggressive.
• Detached Individuals:
• They move away from others i.e. self-reliance,
self-sufficiency, who desires independence and
freedom from obligations
• Withdraw from others and become isolated.
•Quantitative approach to personality as
a set of psychological traits
•Single-trait or multiple-trait theories
Three Types of Trade Theory:
• Consumer materialism
• Consumer innovativeness
• Consumer ethnocentrism
• The degree to which consumers are
receptive to new products, new services
or new practices.
• Consumer innovators are likely to:
– Score lower on dogmatism
– Score higher on need for uniqueness
– Have higher optimum stimulation levels
– Have higher need for sensation seeking
and variety seeking behaviours
• Possessions seen as for one’s
• Materialistic People
– Value acquiring and showing-off
– Are particularly self-centered and selfish
– Seek lifestyles full of possessions
– Have many possessions that do not lead to
• Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong
to purchase foreign-made products
• They can be targeted by stressing