Personality and it's Theories


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What is personality and it's three theories i.e
freudian , Neo-freudian and Trait theory

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Personality and it's Theories

  1. 1. PERSONALITY AND IT’S THEORIES Presented by Muhammad Rafay Roll N0# 43 Syed Haseeb Rizvi Roll NO# 21 Hemal Azhar Roll NO# 23 Mehak Memon Roll NO# 33
  2. 2. MUHAMMAD RAFAY ROLL NO# 43 Personality and it’s Freudian Theory
  4. 4. or The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment.
  5. 5. — Every person is unique having particular characteristics. — Human personality is an interesting blend of behavior and characteristics. — In fact everybody likes to admire people who have great personality regardless of age, sex and financial status. — Possessing great personality might help you to reach ultimate goal.
  6. 6. NATURE OF PERSONALITY Personality reflects individual differences- — Each individual has a special set of inner characteristics, and is thus unique by himself. — Some individual are highly sociable whereas some are low on sociability. — Personality is a useful concept because it enables us to categorize consumers into different groups on the basis of one or even several traits.
  7. 7. Personality is consistent and enduring- — Marketers cannot change consumers personalities to conform to their products. However, if they know which personality characteristics influence specific con-sumer responses, they can attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers. — An individual's personality tends to be both consistent and enduring. — Personality is only one of a combination of factors that influence how a consumer behaves.
  8. 8. Personality can change- — Under certain circumstances personalities change. — An individual's personality may be altered by major life events, such as the birth of a child, the death of a loved one, a divorce, or a significant career promotion. — There are changes in personality as a man matures slowly. — We find many aggressive persons mellow down as they advance in years.
  9. 9. FreudianTheory TraitTheory Non Freudian Theory
  10. 10. FreudianTheory •PROPOSED BY SIGMUND FREUD AN AUSTRIAN NEUROLOGIST WHO BECAME KNOWN AS THE FOUNDING FATHER OF PSYCHOANALYSIS. Theory stated as “Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation” Or “Human motivation is a result of unconscious needs and drives”
  11. 11. There are 3 elements of personality Superego EGO ID
  12. 12. •The Id Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction •The Ego Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
  13. 13. The Quest for Perfection Superego External scrutinizatio n
  14. 14. I want a chocolate Eat a small bar of Chocolate You’re on a diet
  15. 15. HEMAL AZHAR ROLL NO # 23 FFFreudianTheory
  16. 16. FreudianTheory •Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856 •He died September 23, 1939
  17. 17. The Basic Structure of Personality In Freudian theory, the mind is structured into two main parts: the conscious and unconscious mind. The conscious mind includes all the things we are aware of or can easily bring into awareness. The unconscious mind, on the other hand, includes all of the things outside of our awareness – all of the wishes, desires, hopes, urges and memories that lie outside of awareness yet continue to influence behavior. Freud compared the mind to an iceberg. The tip of the iceberg that is actually visible above the water represents just a tiny portion of the mind, while the huge expanse of ice hidden underneath the water represents the much larger unconscious.
  18. 18. The mind is made up of three parts: The Id - Works on the pleasure principle. This is the part of us that wants what is most gratifying at the time, that contains all the innate drives. The Ego - Works on the reality principle. This is the part that knows that is rational to do and decides what to do, but has to satisfy the Id and Super-ego. The Super-ego - Works on the morality principle. This is the part that wants us to do what is moral and right - it has been compared to the voice of our parents or society.
  19. 19. THE ID: The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infant's needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met. THE EGO: The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.
  20. 20. The Superego: The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five. There are two parts of the superego: •The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. •The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse. The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
  21. 21. The Interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting. According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.
  22. 22. MEHAK MEMON ROLL NO # 33 Neo-Freudian personality theory
  23. 23. Neo-freudian Personality Theory • First, the Neo-Freudian was born in Germany 1945 by the German psychiatrist Harald Schultz-Hencke • Social relationships are fundamental to the – formation and development of personality • Three theorists suggest this theory: • Alfred Adler • Harry Stack Sullivan • Karen Horney
  24. 24. Three theorists • Alfred Adler: Style of life Feelings of inferiority striving for superiority • Harry Stack Sullivan:  They try to rewarding relationship with others establish relationships with others to reduce tensions • Karen Horney : child-parent relationship & tries to conquer anxiety.
  25. 25. Individuals can be classified into 3 major groups: • Compliant: move toward others. • Aggressive: move against others. • Detached: move away from others. Compliant Individuals: • They move towards with others i.e One who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others. • Become dependent on others.
  26. 26. • Aggressive Individuals: They move against others i.e. win, place himself as only one. • competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration • Become aggressive. • Detached Individuals: • They move away from others i.e. self-reliance, self-sufficiency, who desires independence and freedom from obligations • Withdraw from others and become isolated.
  27. 27. HASEEB RIZWI ROLL NO# 21 Trait Theory
  28. 28. TraitTheory •Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits •Single-trait or multiple-trait theories
  29. 29. Trait Theories Three Types of Trade Theory: • Consumer materialism • Consumer innovativeness • Consumer ethnocentrism
  30. 30. Consumer Innovativeness • The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices. • Consumer innovators are likely to: – Score lower on dogmatism – Score higher on need for uniqueness – Have higher optimum stimulation levels – Have higher need for sensation seeking and variety seeking behaviours
  31. 31. Consumer Materialism • Possessions seen as for one’s identity • Materialistic People – Value acquiring and showing-off possessions – Are particularly self-centered and selfish – Seek lifestyles full of possessions – Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness
  32. 32. Consumer Ethnocentrism • Ethnocentric consumers feel it is wrong to purchase foreign-made products • They can be targeted by stressing nationalistic themes