Humanist perspective


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Humanist perspective

  1. 1. Humanist Perspective
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Psychologists who take a humanist approach to personality focus on our uniquely human capacity to determine our own actions and futures </li></ul><ul><li>The belief that biology and parental influence are real factors, but ultimately we have the free will to go beyond these forces </li></ul><ul><li>Each individual is responsible for his/her own outcome </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Humanism <ul><li>Created in early 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May </li></ul><ul><li>This was created to replace psychoanalysis and behaviorism with a third force in psychology </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to draw a fuller picture of human potential and personality </li></ul>
  4. 4. Abraham Maslow
  5. 5. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Maslow believed psychology ignored many positive aspects in life such as joy, laughter, love, happiness and beauty </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t value the big five traits, but instead qualities of the self-actualized person </li></ul><ul><li>Self actualization – striving for a life that is meaningful, challenging and satisfying </li></ul>
  6. 6. Self Actualization <ul><li>Maslow saw personality development as the slow progression toward self actualization </li></ul><ul><li>He argued most psychologists had an imbalanced view of human nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-ie. Studying only emotional problem and negative traits like insecurity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Hierarchy of Needs
  8. 8. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Rogers, like Freud, derived many of his ideas from observing his clients in therapy </li></ul><ul><li>He was interested in not only why some people cannot function well but also on fully functioning individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Fully functioning people experience congruence, which is harmony between what they project to others and their true feelings and wishes </li></ul><ul><li>Fully functioning people are trusting, warm and open rather than defensive or intolerant </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rogers continued <ul><li>How do we become fully functioning individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard – love and support for the people we are without strings (conditions) attached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex). Sarah kicks her brother over and over when she’s angry with him. She also throws out her dinner from the window because she hates peas  the parents can correct her behavior WITHOUT withdrawing love from the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child can learn through this that the behavior is bad and needs to be changed, not that Sarah herself is an awful person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saying “violence is not allowed in this home” is very different to “Sarah, you are a horrible, stupid child” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Rogers observations <ul><li>Through his extensive experience giving therapy, he observed many children are raised with conditional positive regard – this is obviously not good (if you have been listening in class!) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex). I will love you Sarah only if you behave well </li></ul><ul><li>Adults often engage in this repeatedly too </li></ul><ul><li>Those treated with conditional regard begin to suppress or deny feelings or actions that they believe are unacceptable to those they love </li></ul>
  11. 11. So what happens? <ul><li>Conditional love = changing what you really say you feel to someone  as a result you feel out of touch with your feelings ( incongruence ) and realize you’re not being true to your real self = low self regard, defensiveness, and unhappiness </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rollo May <ul><li>Also believed in free will </li></ul><ul><li>But emphasized some of the unavoidable difficult and tragic aspects of human condition - Existentialism </li></ul><ul><li>Ie). Loneliness, anxiety and alienation </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the search for meaning of life, the need to confront death and living with the burden of responsibility for our actions </li></ul>
  13. 13. The consequences of Free Will <ul><li>Free will carries a price though, which is why so many people often try to escape their freedom and blame others for their misfortunes </li></ul><ul><li>Our personalities reflect the way we cope with our struggles to find meaning in existence, to use our freedom wisely and to face suffering and death bravely </li></ul><ul><li>May made the following humanist idea popular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can choose to make the best of ourselves by drawing on inner resources such as love and courage but can never escape the harsh realities of life and loss </li></ul></ul>