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Helpful information on understanding PTSD.

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  1. 1. PTSD "soldier's heart "
  2. 2. defini t ion
  3. 3. Anxiety disorder after exposure to terrifying event in which grave physical harm was threatened definition
  4. 4. Fear triggers split-second changes in body to defend against danger or avoid it definition
  5. 5. This “fight-or-flight” response is healthy meant to protect person from harm definition
  6. 6. In PTSD, reaction is changed or damaged - one may feel stressed or frightened even when no longer in danger definition
  7. 7. Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD) prolonged exposure to traumatic event; long-lasting problems of emotional & social functioning definition
  8. 8. f a cts
  9. 9. Women sexually abused at earlier ages more likely to develop C-PTSD facts
  10. 10. Up to 100% of children who endured sexual abuse tend to develop facts
  11. 11. Women twice as likely as men to develop facts
  12. 12. Approximately 7%-8% of US likely develop in lifetime facts
  13. 13. symp t oms
  14. 14. <ul><li>Persistent frightening thoughts and memories of ordeal </li></ul>symptoms
  15. 15. <ul><li>Feel emotionally numb , especially with people once close to </li></ul>symptoms
  16. 16. <ul><li>Children and teens can have extreme reactions to trauma, symptoms may not be the same as adults </li></ul>symptoms
  17. 17. <ul><li>Re-experiencing… </li></ul><ul><li>problems in everyday routine </li></ul><ul><li>can start from own thoughts, feelings, words, objects, or situations </li></ul><ul><li>flashbacks - reliving trauma over and over, including physical symptoms like a racing heart or sweating; bad dreams </li></ul>symptoms
  18. 18. <ul><li>Avoidance… </li></ul><ul><li>avoiding places, events, or objects reminders of experience </li></ul><ul><li>strong guilt, depression, or worry </li></ul><ul><li>losing interest in activities enjoyable in past </li></ul><ul><li>trouble remembering event </li></ul>symptoms
  19. 19. <ul><li>Hyper Arousal… </li></ul><ul><li>easily startled </li></ul><ul><li>feeling “on edge” </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty sleeping </li></ul><ul><li>angry outbursts </li></ul><ul><li>usually constant </li></ul>symptoms
  20. 20. <ul><li>C-PTSD… </li></ul><ul><li>Problems regulating feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Passive aggressive behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Feel detached from one's life (dissociation) or body (depersonalization) </li></ul><ul><li>Persistent feelings of helplessness, shame, guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling completely different from others </li></ul>symptoms
  21. 21. <ul><li>Often co-occurs with… </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar disorder (manic depression) </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Panic disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Social anxiety disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized anxiety disorder </li></ul>symptoms
  22. 22. diagn o sis
  23. 23. <ul><li>To be diagnosed person must have all of the following for at least 1 month … </li></ul>diagnosis
  24. 24. <ul><li>At least one re-experiencing symptom </li></ul>diagnosis
  25. 25. <ul><li>At least three avoidance symptoms </li></ul>diagnosis
  26. 26. <ul><li>At least two hyperarousal symptoms </li></ul>diagnosis
  27. 27. <ul><li>Not everyone who lives through a dangerous event gets PTSD - in fact, most will not get the disorder </li></ul>diagnosis
  28. 28. fac t ors
  29. 29. Risk factors make a person more likely to get PTSD factors
  30. 30. Resilience factors reduce risk of the disorder factors
  31. 31. Factors present before trauma and others become important during and after traumatic event factors
  32. 32. factors <ul><li>Risk factors include… </li></ul><ul><li>Living through dangerous trauma </li></ul><ul><li>History of mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling helplessness or extreme fear </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no social support after event </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with extra stress after event </li></ul>
  33. 33. factors <ul><li>Resilience factors include… </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking out support from others </li></ul><ul><li>Support group after traumatic event </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling good about actions in face of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Having coping strategy and learning from it </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to act and respond effectively despite feeling fear </li></ul>
  34. 34. treat m ent
  35. 35. <ul><li>Main Treatments… </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy (“talk” therapy) </li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li>Or both </li></ul>treatment
  36. 36. Psychotherapy can occur one-on-one or in group treatment
  37. 37. Talk therapy usually lasts 6 to 12 weeks or more treatment
  38. 38. Research shows support from family and friends an important part of therapy treatment
  39. 39. <ul><li>Exposure Therapy… </li></ul><ul><li>Helps face and control fear </li></ul><ul><li>Exposes to trauma in safe way </li></ul><ul><li>Mental imagery, writing, or visits to place where event happened </li></ul>treatment
  40. 40. <ul><li>Cognitive Restructuring… </li></ul><ul><li>Helps make sense of bad memories </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes remember event differently than how happened </li></ul><ul><li>May feel guilt or shame about what is not fault </li></ul>treatment
  41. 41. <ul><li>Stress Inoculation Training… </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches how to reduce anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Helps look at memories in healthy way </li></ul>treatment
  42. 42. hel p ing
  43. 43. <ul><li>To help a friend… </li></ul><ul><li>Offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Talk and listen carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Be understanding of situations that trigger symptoms </li></ul>helping
  44. 44. <ul><li>To help a friend… </li></ul><ul><li>Invite friend to positive distractions (walks, outings, fishing) </li></ul><ul><li>Remind friend, with time and treatment, she can get better </li></ul><ul><li>Never ignore comments about harming herself and report comments to doctor </li></ul>helping
  45. 45. <ul><li>To help yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in activity </li></ul><ul><li>Set realistic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Break large tasks into small ones </li></ul>helping
  46. 46. <ul><li>To help yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time with people, confide in trusted friend </li></ul><ul><li>Tell others about symptom triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Expect symptoms to improve gradually </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & seek comforting situations, places, & people </li></ul>helping
  47. 47. <ul><li>Mental Health Resources… </li></ul><ul><li>psychiatrist – psychologist - social worker - counselor - community mental health center - outpatient clinic - universities - family service or social agency - peer support group - private clinic - employee assistance - local medical or psychiatric society - National Alliance for Mentally Ill - National Mental Health Assoc - PTSD Info Hotline - PTSD Sanctuary - Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network </li></ul>Resources
  48. 48. <ul><li>For more information… </li></ul><ul><li>National Library of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>“ PTSD in Children & Adolescents: A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience & vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clinical response & risk for reported suicidal ideation & suicide attempts in pediatric antidepressant treatment, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Journal of the American Medical Association” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trends in mental illness & suicidality after Hurricane Katrina” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social, psychological, & psychiatric interventions following terrorist attacks: recommendations for practice & research” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Neuropsychopharmacology” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Assessment and treatment of adult acute responses to traumatic stress following mass traumatic events” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cochrane Database” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Randomized, Controlled Proof-of-Concept Trial of an Internet-Based, Therapist-Assisted Self-Management Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder” </li></ul>Resources
  49. 49. PTSD &quot;soldier's heart &quot;