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Histology of Connective Tissue II
Dr. Muhammad Ali Rabbani
Asst. Professor Anatomy
MBBS (NMC, Multan)
FCPS (Anatomy)
CHPE (Certificate in Health Professional Education)
DHPE (Diploma in Health Professional Education)
MBA (Masters of Business Administration)
MPH (Masters of Public Health)
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Let’s review the previous lecture
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 2
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Which of the following connective tissue components is located in the
ECM but not in the ground substance?
a. Collagen bundles
b. Fibronectin
c. GAGs
d. Hyaluronan
e. Proteoglycans
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 3
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Which of the following connective tissue components is located in the
ECM but not in the ground substance?
a. Collagen bundles
b. Fibronectin
c. GAGs
d. Hyaluronan
e. Proteoglycans
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 4
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What cells numerous in loose connective tissue are filled with secretory
granules and stain with metachromasia?
a. Macrophages
b. Mast cells
c. Fibrocytes
d. Active fibroblasts
e. Leukocytes
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What cells numerous in loose connective tissue are filled with secretory
granules and stain with metachromasia?
a. Macrophages
b. Mast cells
c. Fibrocytes
d. Active fibroblasts
e. Leukocytes
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Which one of the following cell types arises from monocytes?
a. Plasma cells
b. Fibroblasts
c. Lymphocytes
d. Macrophages
e. Mast cells
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Which one of the following cell types arises from monocytes?
a. Plasma cells
b. Fibroblasts
c. Lymphocytes
d. Macrophages
e. Mast cells
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Learning Objectives
By the end of this session students should be able to
• Describe Interstitial Fluid
• Summarize a brief account of histological features of different types
of connective tissue
• Compare various types of connective tissue with example of each
type
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Interstitial Fluid
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Water in the ground substance of connective tissue is referred to as
interstitial fluid
• It has an ion composition similar to that of blood plasma
• It contains plasma proteins of low molecular weight
• As much as one-third of the body’s plasma proteins are normally
found in the interstitial fluid of connective tissue
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• Interstitial fluid is maintained by exchange through capillaries
• Two main forces act on water in capillaries
• Hydrostatic Pressure – forces water out of capillary
• Osmotic Pressure – draws water back into capillaries
• The quantity of water drawn back into capillaries is often less than
what is forced out
• Excess water is drained through the lymphatic vessels
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 13
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Types of Connective Tissue
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Different combinations and densities of the cells, fibers, and other ECM
components form different types of connective tissue
Connective Tissues may be broadly classified as follows
• Connective Tissue Proper
• Loose (areolar) connective tissue
• Dense irregular connective tissue
• Dense regular connective tissue
• Embryonic Connective Tissue
• Mesenchyme
• Mucoid (mucous) connective tissue
• Specialized Connective Tissue
• Reticular, Adipose, Cartilage, Bone, Blood connective tissue
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Connective Tissue Proper
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Loose Connective Tissue
• It contains almost equal parts of
• Cells – mostly fibroblasts, other cells also found
• Fibers – Collagen predominate, reticular and elastic tissue also present
• Ground substance
• It has delicate consistency – flexible and not resistant to stress
• Form a layer beneath the epithelial lining of many organs (lamina
propria) and fills the spaces between fibers of muscle and nerve
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Dense Connective Tissue
• It has similar components as loose connective tissue
• ↓ cells – mostly fibroblasts
• ↑ fibres – predominance of bundled type I collagen fibers
• ↓↓ground substance
• Less flexible, more resilient to stress
• It is further divided into two types depending upon orientation of
fibers
• Dense irregular connective tissue
• Dense regular connective tissue
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19
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Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
• Bundles of collagen fibers appear randomly interwoven, with no
definite orientation
• This structure provides resistance to stress from all directions
• Examples include
• Deep dermis layer of skin
• Capsule surrounding most organs
• Submucosa of digestive track
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 21
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 22
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Dense Regular Connective Tissue
• Consists mostly of type I collagen bundles and fibroblasts aligned in
parallel
• Provide great resistance to prolonged or repeated stresses from the same
direction
• Examples include
• Tendons
• Aponeuroses – collagen exist as multiple layers alternating at 90° angles
• Ligaments – some contain parallel bundles of elastic tissue besides collagen
• Corneal Stroma
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 24
Notice the shape of the Fibroblast
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Reticular Connective Tissue
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• Characterised by abundant fibers of type III collagen (reticulin) forming a delicate
network
• Produced by modified fibroblasts often called reticular cells
• It provides a framework with specialized microenvironments for cells in
hemopoietic tissue and some lymphoid organs ( bone marrow, lymph node,
spleen)
• The resulting cell-lined system creates a meshwork for passage of leukocytes and
lymph
• Examples include
• Bone marrow
• Liver, pancreas
• Adrenal Glands
• All lymphoid organs except thymus
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 27
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Mucoid Connective Tissue
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• It consists of
• Abundant ground substance - composed chiefly of hyaluronans
• Sparse collagen fibers
• Scattered fibroblasts cells
• It is a principal component of the fetal umbilical cord, where it is
referred to as Wharton’s jelly
• Similar tissue is found in vitreous chambers of eyes and pulp cavities
of young teeth
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 30
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 31
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 32
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Dense regular connective tissue typically involves which of the
following features?
a. Contains mostly synthetically active fibroblasts
b. Contains much ground substance
c. Contains a similar cell population as areolar connective tissue
d. Predominant tissue type in the stroma of most organs
e. Predominantly located in tendons and ligaments
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 33
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Dense regular connective tissue typically involves which of the
following features?
a. Contains mostly synthetically active fibroblasts
b. Contains much ground substance
c. Contains a similar cell population as areolar connective tissue
d. Predominant tissue type in the stroma of most organs
e. Predominantly located in tendons and ligaments
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 35
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Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 36
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Adipose Tissue
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Adipocytes
• Fat storing cell of the body
• Location
• Isolated cells
• Small groups in irregular connective tissue
• Large aggregates – Adipose tissue
• 15-20% of Adult body weight
• Rich blood supply and thin external lamina
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Adipocytes
• Functions
• Energy storage
• As endocrine organ
• Insulation
• Space filling
• Shaping of body surface
• Types
• White adipose tissue
• Brown adipose tissue
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White Adipose Tissue
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White Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 41
• Cell shape
• Size (50-150µm)
• Appearance (Light microscopic)
• Signet-ring appearance
• Unilocular
• Vimentin in lipid-cytoplasm interface
• Nucleus and Cytoplasm
• Submembranous layer
• SER Cisterns & pinocytic vesicles
• Surrounding reticular fibers
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White Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 42
• Distribution
• Age
• Sex
• Colour
• Diet – Carotenoids
• Sources of stored lipids
• Chylomicrons - dietary
• VLDLs - livers
• Synthesised in adipocytes
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Chylomicrons & VLDL
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 43
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Lipid Storage and Mobilization
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 44
Role of Insulin
Norepinephrine
Growth hormone
Role of Leptin
Starvation
Release of
Proinflammatory cytokines
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Histogenesis
• Begin to accumulate by 14 weeks
• Proliferation stops by late gestation
• Filling of existing by age of 10
• Period of fat cell differentiation through
adolescence
• Obesity
• Adult - hypertrophy
• Childhood - hyperplasia
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Brown Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 46
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Brown Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 47
• 2-5% of new-born weight
• Reduces greatly with age
• Location
• Back, neck, shoulder
• Adults – kidney, supra-renal, aorta, mediastinum
• Structure
• Smaller
• Colour – blood vessels, mitochondria
• Multilocular
• Function – Heat production
• uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) or thermogenin
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Brown Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 48
Activated hormone sensitive lipase → fatty
acid → not released, rather metabolised →
uncoupling → heat released
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Differences – White vs Brown Adipose Tissue
Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani 49
• Shape
• Size
• Droplets
• Nucleus location
• Location
• Connective tissue lobules
• Regulation / Innervation
• Origin (location, time)
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