Printmaking and photo upload


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  • Intagliare = to cut into
  • The first permanent photograph (later accidentally destroyed) was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Joseph NicéphoreNiépce. His photographs were produced on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea. View from the Window at Le Gras (La cour du domaine du Gras) was the first successful permanent photograph, created by NicéphoreNiépce in 1826 at Saint-Loup-de-Varennes.Niépce captured the photo with a camera obscurafocused onto a sheet of 20 × 25 cm oil-treated bitumen. As a result of the 8-hour exposure, sunlight illuminates the buildings on both sides.
  • STEP I:  PREPARING THE PLATE (20 to 25 minutes)By far the most time consuming and labor intensive of the five-step process. 1)   Remove a plate from the plate box (a). 2)   If not pre-crimped in manufacture, use plate bender (b) to turn down edges. This takes less than a minute. Perfectly flat plates (c) were produced in the early years. Later, they were pre-bent at the edges (d) to aid insertion in a plate vice (i). 3)   Remove buffing stick (e) from storage or warming box (f). Only one  shown  in this illustration, but each polishing agent gets its own buffer. 4)   Vigorously scour the crimped plate (d) with powdered rotten stone (not illustrated) to remove surface imperfections. 5)   Rub chalk rouge (g) on deerskin side of buffing stick (e). 6)   Much more common was powdered rouge (h). Sprinkle on buffing stick and rub powder into surface of the hide (e). 7)   Install plate in Benedict’s plate holder (i), one of many gadgets sold commercially for securing the plate while buffing. 8)   The entire assembly is clamped onto a wooden table vise (j). The vise is fastened to the table or bench. Now polish or buff the plate (always in the horizontal direction of what will be the finished image) for about 20 minutes to get a perfect mirror finish. The use of a treadle driven buffing wheel could measurably shorten the time of this step. 9)   Lime from these bottles (k) is used to bed or cradle the bromine in the bottom of the glass tray which is inside the second coating box (n). 10)   Insert buffed plate (m), face down in the sliding cover which is double the length of the box, and slide the plate into position over box containing iodine (l). When the plate turns light yellow, (usually about 15 to 25 seconds) remove from this box. The iodine stays good for years when kept in its sealed coating box so it is always ready to be used. 11)   Move the plate (m) to the bromine box (n) and slide into position for approximately 5 to 10 seconds till the plate turns rose colored. When this takes over 15 seconds, the bromine (or quick stuff) has weakened and a pinch more should be added to freshen up the existing chemical. It will then stay potent for months. 12)   Now in darkness, return plate to the iodine box (l) for a few seconds. This completes the coating, and you now have a properly sensitized plate. 13)  Insert polished and sensitized plate in a plateholder(o) and close dark-slide, (shown partially open in this illustration).14) All polishing except for the quick final buff of the plate with lampblack (not illustrated) is done in advance so the sitter can enter the studio and receive a  finished likeness in less than thirty minutes! STEP II:  TAKING THE EXPOSURE (2 to 8 minutes)1)   Place the camera (a) on a tripod, (see Illustration Page 1). 2)   Open trap doors (b) and (c) on top of camera . 3)   Remove lens cap (d) from front of lens (e). 4)   Insert the ground viewing glass (f) in open slot on camera top. 5)   Focus lens (e) and compose your subject in its frame until you are satisfied. This usually takes more time than the actual exposure. Lightly replace lens cap (d). 6)   Remove the viewing glass (f) from camera (a) and replace with the loaded plateholder(g) with dark-slide (h) in down position. (Though in the illustrated detail of this layout, an extra plateholder(g&h) is displayed partially drawn up in order to show the polished and sensitized daguerreotype plate’s position (i) within the plateholder(g). 7)   With the plateholder in the camera, pull up the dark-slide as far as possible (h2), then remove and replace the lens cap (d), using it as the shutter. Normally indoors with good light this takes from ten to twenty seconds though most operators advertised much quicker exposure times to lure the gullable. If the advertising were to be believed, there would have been no need for headstands (see Illustration, Item 4). 8)   Drop the dark-slide (h2) to secure the exposed plate from any further light and remove the plateholder from the camera.
  • Printmaking and photo upload

    1. 1. The Processes of Mass Production: Printmaking and Photography<br />Reading:<br />Artforms, 105-132<br />Terms/Concepts: <br />print, matrix, edition, artist’s proof, relief, woodcut, registered, wood engraving, linoleum cut, intaglio, engraving, burin, etching, aquatint, drypoint, lithography, tusche, stencil, screenprinting, photo screen, <br />heliotype, daguerreotype, photograph, developer, plate, film, kodachrome, “straight photography”<br />
    2. 2. What is printmaking?<br />print·mak·ing<br />noun -ˌmā-kiŋ<br />1: the design and production of prints by an artist <br />"...broadly, the production of images normally on paper and exceptionally on fabric, parchment, plastic or other support by various processes of multiplication; more narrowly, the making and printing of graphic works by hand or under the supervision of the artist.” –Encyclopedia Britannica<br />
    3. 3. Basic Components of Printmaking<br />+<br />+<br />Ink<br />Matrix<br />=<br />Print<br />Surface<br />
    4. 4. Relief<br />Woodcut<br />Linocut<br />is the process of making a print with a matrix where the non-image area (negative space) is cut away and the image area (positive space) is left raised.<br />
    5. 5. 1. Removing the ground.<br />
    6. 6. 2. Inking the Cut<br />
    7. 7. 3. Printing the cut onto your surface<br />
    8. 8. *<br />*<br />Areas of high contrast; values cannot really be blended.<br />Strong<br />Raw<br />Powerful<br />Intense<br />Rough<br />Emil Nolde, Prophet, 1912, Woodcut, 12 1/2” X 8 13/16”<br />
    9. 9. Distance between lines simulates modulated chiaroscuro.<br />*<br />*<br />*<br />Areas of high contrast<br />Delicate lines<br />*<br />Less white = Fewer areas gouged out<br />Rockwell Kent, Workers of the World Unite, 1937, woodcut print, 8” X 5 1/8”<br />
    10. 10. Katsushika Hokusai, The Wave, from 1000 Views of Mt. Fuji, 1830, color woodblock print*, 10 1/4” X 15 1/8” <br />* To add different blocks of unblended color, multiple woodcuts are used—one for each color. They are registered (lined up) to ensure that the blocks are correctly placed. <br />
    11. 11. Intalgio<br />Engraved plate using drypoint<br />Prepped plates about to be etched<br />is a printmaking process that transfers the images via the areas that are cut away, not the raised areas (the opposite of relief printing).<br />
    12. 12. 1a The Plate: Engraving<br />Burr<br />Burins<br />Engraving a plate<br />is simply creating burrs (or troughs where the ink settles) by engraving into the metal plate.<br />
    13. 13. 1b Plate: Etching<br />1.<br />2.<br />Applying the ground<br />Smoking the plate<br />3.<br />4.<br />5.<br />6.<br />Making the image<br />Making the etch<br />Cleaning the plate<br />Finished plate<br />
    14. 14. 2. Inking the Plate <br />1.<br />Inking the plate<br />2.<br />Removing excess ink<br />
    15. 15. 1.<br />Applying paper to plate<br />3. Making the Print<br />2.<br />3.<br />Running press over plate<br />Finished print<br />
    16. 16. *<br />*<br />less dramatic contrasts<br />more delicate details than woodcuts<br />complex<br />subtle<br />detailed<br />fine<br />Albrecht Durer, The Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513, Engraving, 9 5/8” X 7 1/2"<br />
    17. 17. *<br />Etching with acid creates consistent depth of lines.<br />*<br />More subtle shading effects are possible with etching.<br />Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn, Christ Preaching, 1652, Etching, 61 1/4” X 8 1/8”<br />
    18. 18. *<br />multimedia <br />*<br />Drypoint<br />*<br />Aquatint<br />Mary Cassatt, The Letter, drypoint, soft ground etching, and aquatint, 13 5/8” X 8 15/16”<br />
    19. 19. Lithography<br />is a printmaking process that transfers the image via a stone, working with the natural resistance between oil and water.<br />
    20. 20. 1. Draw on the Stone<br />*<br />This process is also called greasing the stone<br />
    21. 21. 2. Treat the Stone<br />2.<br />1.<br />Treating with acid<br />Treating with gum arabic<br />4.<br />3.<br />5.<br />6.<br />*<br />Cooling the stone<br />Removing the material<br />Wetting the stone<br />Applying Asphaltum<br />*<br />Ghost Image<br />
    22. 22. 3. Printing<br />1.<br />2.<br />Wetting the Stone<br />Inking the Stone<br />3.<br />4.<br />6.<br />5.<br />Rewetting the Stone<br />Applying the Paper<br />Printing<br />Finished Print<br />
    23. 23. *<br />Replication of drawing marks and techniques<br />*<br />Subtle gradations, not reliant on sharp contour lines<br />Honore Daumier, Rue TransnonainApril 15, 1834, 1834, Lithograph, 28.6 cm X 44 cm.<br />
    24. 24. *<br />Multi-color technique used multiple stones<br />Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jane Avril, 1893, Lithograph in five colors, 50 5/8” X 37”<br />
    25. 25. Silkscreen<br />or screenprinting is a process where a print is made by forcing ink through porous fabric, often through or around a stencil. <br />
    26. 26. 1. Screen<br />1.<br />2.<br />Choose porous fabric<br />Stretch and staple screen<br />3.<br />4.<br />Seal screen<br />Finished screen<br />
    27. 27. 2. Stencil<br />4.<br />2.<br />1.<br />3.<br />Cut Out<br />1.<br />2.<br />Rinse screen<br />Block Out<br />Expose to light<br />Apply Emulsion<br />Place Image<br />Apply glue around image<br />Let dry<br />1.<br />2.<br />3.<br />Photographic<br />Cut image<br />Remove excess<br />Finished screen<br />
    28. 28. 3. Printing<br />2.<br />1.<br />Spread ink with squeegee<br />Position paper<br />3.<br />Finished Print<br />
    29. 29. *<br />multiple screens were used to create different colors<br />*<br />Screens do not print the same way after many repetitions.<br />This work shows how the image degrades after repeated use.<br />Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, 80 4/5” X 57” <br />
    30. 30. *<br />Sharp contrast between different fields of color. Evidence of multiple screens.<br />*<br />*<br />Printmaking methods were used commercially for packaging and advertisements.<br />Ester Hernandez, Sun Mad, 1982, Silkscreen, 22” X 17”<br />
    31. 31. What is photography?<br />Literally: Light (Photo) Writing (Graphy)<br />the art or process of producing images by the action of radiant energy and especially light on a sensitive surface –Miriam Webster<br />PHOTOGRAPH, n. A picture painted by the sun without instruction in art. It is a little better than the work of an Apache, but not quite so good as that of a Cheyenne. –Ambrose Bierce, The Devil’s Dictionary<br />
    32. 32. Joseph NicephoreNiepce, View from the Window at Le Gras, 1826, Heliographic Engraving (Niepce)<br />
    33. 33. Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Le Boulevard du Temple, 1839, Daguerreotype.<br />
    34. 34. Julia Margaret Cameron, Julia Jackson, March 1886, Albumen silver print from wet-collodion glass negative, 13 1/4” X 11”<br />
    35. 35. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
    36. 36. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
    37. 37. Early Processes<br />Prepping the Plate<br />Taking the Exposure<br />Developing the Exposure<br />
    38. 38. Diagram of early posing tool, mid-19th century<br />Early Posing Chair, mid-19th century.<br />
    39. 39. Invention of Film<br />*<br />George Eastman invented rolled photographic film in 1889.<br />Kodak Brownie Junior Box Camera. c. 1933<br />
    40. 40. Alfred Stieglitz, The Flatiron Building from Camera Work, October 1903, Gravure on vellum. <br />
    41. 41. Coloring Photos<br />
    42. 42. Young Women in Geisha Garb, Late 19th Century-Early 20th Century, Hand-Painted Tintype <br />
    43. 43. Cypress Gardens Postcard, 1957, Kodachrome Photograph.<br />
    44. 44. Circulating the Image/Message<br />Honore Daumier, Rue TransnonainApril 15, 1834, 1834, Lithograph, 28.6 cm X 44 cm.<br />
    45. 45. Circulating the Image/Message<br />Margaret Bourke-White. Louisville Flood Victims. 1938. Photograph.<br />
    46. 46. Ansel Adams, Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite National Park, California, 1944, Photograph.<br />
    47. 47. Experimenting with the Medium<br />Elizabeth Murray, Exile from Thirty-Eight, 1993, 23 color lithograph/screenprint construction with unique pastel application by the artist.<br />Man Ray, Rayograph, 1927, Gelatin Silver Print, 11 9/20” X 9 1/10” <br />
    48. 48. Medium as Meaning<br />Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, oil, acrylic and silkscreen on canvas, 80 4/5” X 57” <br />