Johannes GutenbergJohannes GutenbergJohannes Gutenberg was a Germancraftsman and inventor. Gutenberg isbest known for the Gutenberg press,an innovative printing press machinethat used movable type. It remainedthe standard until the 20th century.Gutenberg made printing cheap.movable type printing started thePrinting Revolution and is widelyregarded as the most important eventof the modern period. It played a keyrole in the development of theRenaissance, Reformation,
• Block printingYuan Dynasty woodblockedition of a Chinese playBlock printing is a technique forprinting text, images or patterns usedwidely throughout East Asia both as amethod of printing on textiles andlater, under the influence of Buddhism,on paper. As a method of printing oncloth, the earliest surviving examplesfrom China date to about 220.
Korean moveable metal typesetform, used to print 1n 1447(1)A case of cast metal type pieces and (1)typeset matter in a composing stick(2)Movable type is the system of printingand typography using movable piecesof metal type, made by casting frommatrices struck by letter punches.Around 1040, the first known movabletype system was created in China by BiSheng out of porcelain. Metal movabletype was first invented in Korea during (2)the Goryeo Dynasty (around 1230).Neither movable type system waswidely used, one reason being theenormous Chinese character set.
• Rotary printing pressA rotary printing press is a printingpress in which the impressions arecarved around a cylinder so that theprinting can be done on longcontinuous rolls of paper, cardboard,plastic, or a large number of othersubstrates. Rotary drum printing wasinvented by Richard March Hoe in1847, and then significantly improvedby William Bullock in 1863.
Intaglio printing pressIntaglio is a family of printmakingtechniques in which the image isincised into a surface, known as thematrix or plate. Normally, copper orzinc plates are used as a surface, andthe incisions are created by etching,engraving, dry point, aquatint ormezzotint. Collographs may also beprinted as intaglio plates. To print anintaglio plate the surface is covered inthick ink and then rubbed withtarlatan cloth to remove most of theexcess. The final smooth wipe isusually done by hand, sometimes withthe aid of newspaper or old publicphone book pages, leaving ink only inthe incisions. A damp piece of paper isplaced on top and the plate and paperare run through a printing press that,through pressure, transfers the inkfrom the recesses of the plate to thepaper.
Color printingChromolithography became the mostsuccessful of several methods ofcolour printing developed by the 19thcentury; other methods weredeveloped by printers such as JacobChristoph Le Blon, George Baxter andEdmund Evans, and mostly relied onusing several woodblocks with thecolors. Hand-coloring also remainedimportant; elements of the officialBritish Ordnance Survey maps werecolored by hand by boys until 1875.Chromolithography developed fromlithography and the term coversvarious types of lithography that areprinted in color.
Lithography (1796)Lithography is a printing process thatuses chemical processes to create animage. Thus, when the plate isintroduced to a compatible ink andwater mixture, the ink will adhere tothe positive image and the water willclean the negative image. This allowsfor a relatively flat print plate whichallows for much longer runs than theolder physical methods of imaging. Inoffset lithography, which depends on stone used for a lithograph with a view of Princetonphotographic processes, flexible University (Collection: Princeton University Library, NJ)aluminum, polyester, mylar or paperprinting plates are used in place ofstone tablets. Modern printing plateshave a brushed or roughened textureand are covered with a photosensitiveemulsion
Offset pressOffset printing is a widely usedprinting technique where the inkedimage is transferred (or "offset") froma plate to a rubber blanket, then to theprinting surface. When used incombination with the lithographicprocess, which is based on therepulsion of oil and water, the offsettechnique employs a flat(planographic) image carrier on whichthe image to be printed obtains inkfrom ink rollers, while the non-printingarea attracts a film of water, keepingthe non-printing areas ink-free.
Electrostatic printing MachinesKnown best for its printing of largeworld maps, the electrostatic printeruses no plates, nor does it directly useany ink or toner. Rather, it uses papercoated in a layer of zinc oxide. Thispaper is charged with the appropriateimage, and runs through a literal inkbath, where the correct inks areattracted to the paper. What emergesis a high quality print. This printerrequires low setup, and also has lowprice per print and high speeds.
Screen PrintingMachinePopular with textile (wood, ceramic,metal) and clothes printers, screenprinting is a special technique whichcreates screens from a fabric. Usuallysilk, nylon, or polyester, the screen hasstencil of the image cut into it, and it isthen stretched over the material to beprinted on. According to PrintingMachines, this printing method wasseen in the "beginning of the 19thcentury and gained popularity duringthe first world war for making bannersand printing flags."
FlexographyFlexographical printers are used forpackaging materials, both for food andboxes. This printer uses plastic orrubber plates which are fed onto abelt, which then goes into animpression cylinder. This impressioncylinder, as the name implies, makesan impression of the image.Flexography usually has lower quality,but has versatility in what it can printon.
PhotocopierXerographic office photocopying wasintroduced by Xerox in the 1960s, andover the following 20 years it graduallyreplaced copies made by Verifax,Photostat, carbon paper, mimeographmachines, and other duplicatingmachines. The prevalence of its use isone of the factors that prevented thedevelopment of the paperless officeheralded early in the digital revolution.
Thermal printerA thermal printer (or direct thermalprinter) produces a printed image byselectively heating coatedthermochromic paper, or thermalpaper as it is commonly known, whenthe paper passes over the thermalprint head. The coating turns black inthe areas where it is heated, producingan image.
Laser printer (1969)The laser printer, based on a modifiedxerographic copier, was invented atXerox in 1969 by researcher Gary Starkweather, who had a fully functionalnetworked printer system working by1971.