Violence against Art:Iconoclasms Past and Present<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />icon, iconoclasm, vandalism, iconoclast, icono...
Jean-Pierre Houel, The Storming of the Bastille, c. 1790.
The Removal and Destruction of Religious Images from Wittenberg Cathedral, 1566.
“The defamation of ‘Racial’ Art,” from the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer ...
What is Iconoclasm?<br />Origin:<br />Greek:  Eikon (image) + Klao (to break) = <br />“the breaking of images”<br />Defini...
What is ‘destroyed’?<br />Objects that are either publically or privately owned.<br />Objects acknowledged as art or not.<...
Who destroys?<br />Individual or collective.<br />Known or anonymous.<br />Have a lot of power or have little power.<br />...
“Quarrel of the Images”Byzantine Iconoclasm 726-843 CE<br />
Icons<br />Christ<br />Virgin and Child<br />Saints<br />Angels<br />Festal<br />Narrative<br />
Iconoclasts<br />Icons are akin to the “graven images” mentioned in the second commandment: “4 Thou shalt not make unto th...
Iconodules:<br />Icons are powerful didactic tools: “An image is, after all, a reminder; it is to the illiterate what a bo...
Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros<br />Khludov Psalter<br />850-75<br />
Theodora Instructing her Daughters in the Veneration of Icons, Madrid Skylitzes, 12thCentury  CE<br />
Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy, Constantinople, 1400<br />
The Removal and Destruction of Church Images, from Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, 1563<br />
The Removal and Destruction of Religious Images from Wittenberg Cathedral, 1566.<br />
Political Iconoclasm:The French Revolution 1789-1799<br />Louis XIV,<br /> “The Sun King”<br />1643-1715<br />
<ul><li>Feared the intrigue of this courtiers and nobles.
Required his nobles to spend the majority of their time at his court in Versailles.
Establishes a court life based on the systematic neglect of noble estates and the peasants who worked them.</li></ul>Hyaci...
Second Estate: Nobility<br />First Estate: Clergy<br />Untaxed<br />Untaxed<br />3 % of the Population<br />95 % of the Po...
Jean-Pierre Houel, The Storming of the Bastille, c. 1790.<br />
“We shall support it to the last drop of blood.”<br />The Overthrown Idol, 1791.<br />
The Greatest of Despots Overthrown by Liberty, The Dismantling of the Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV, 1792. <br />
Radiating Chapels and Ambulatory, St. Denis, Cathedral, Paris, France, 1145, defaced 1792.<br />
Ideological Iconoclasm:Nazi-Era ‘EntarteteKunst’<br />“Blut und Bodent” Poster for the Hitler Youth, c. 1937.<br />
Hubert Lanzinger, Der Bannertrager(The Standard Banner), 1934-1936.<br />
Ivo Saliger, The Judgment of Paris, 1939.<br />
Degenerate<br />“Art”<br />Cover of the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur...
“The defamation of ‘Racial’ Art,” from the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer ...
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Iconoclasm

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  • Christ PantokratorSt. Catherine’sMt. Sinai6th CenturyVirgin and ChildSt. Catherine’s of Mount Sinai6th CenturySt. PeterSt. Catherine’s at Mt. Sinai6th CenturyThe NativitySt. Catherine’sMt. Sinai7th Century
  • Simon Magus and Patriarch NikephorosKhludov Psalter850-75The Crucifixion and Iconoclasts whitewashing an icon of ChristKhludov Psalter850-75
  • Theodora Instructing her Daughters in the Veneration of IconsMadrid Skylitzes12th Century
  • Icon of the Triumph of OrthodoxyConstantinople1400
  • Iconoclasm

    1. 1. Violence against Art:Iconoclasms Past and Present<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />icon, iconoclasm, vandalism, iconoclast, iconodule, vandal, socialist realism, three estates, the Enlightenment, reign of terror (Great Fear), EntarteteKunst (degenerate art), <br />Key Monuments:<br /><ul><li>Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros, Khludov Psalter, 850-75
    2. 2. Jean-Pierre Houel, The Storming of the Bastille, c. 1790.
    3. 3. The Removal and Destruction of Religious Images from Wittenberg Cathedral, 1566.
    4. 4. “The defamation of ‘Racial’ Art,” from the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur BildendeKunst. </li></li></ul><li>Loveland, Colorado, 2010<br />“The protesters want the exhibit removed. They believe that taxpayers’ dollars should not be going to pornography.”<br />--Jeanette De Melo, Archdiocese of Loveland<br />Protesters<br />There are many ways to express disagreement with the ideas expressed in an artwork that do not entail going against the founding principles of this country: the separation of church and state and the right to free speech.<br />--National Coalition Against Censorship<br />Enrique Chagoya, “The Misadventures of the Romantic Cannibals, 2010.<br />
    5. 5. What is Iconoclasm?<br />Origin:<br />Greek: Eikon (image) + Klao (to break) = <br />“the breaking of images”<br />Definition:<br />“The willful destruction of images” (Gambolini)<br />Connotations:<br />Motivated by some kind of ideological cause.<br />Often justified either legally or socially.<br />
    6. 6. What is ‘destroyed’?<br />Objects that are either publically or privately owned.<br />Objects acknowledged as art or not.<br />Objects that appear autonomous or directly associated with a particular group or set of values.<br />
    7. 7. Who destroys?<br />Individual or collective.<br />Known or anonymous.<br />Have a lot of power or have little power.<br />Basically any one with the motive and opportunity.<br />
    8. 8. “Quarrel of the Images”Byzantine Iconoclasm 726-843 CE<br />
    9. 9. Icons<br />Christ<br />Virgin and Child<br />Saints<br />Angels<br />Festal<br />Narrative<br />
    10. 10. Iconoclasts<br />Icons are akin to the “graven images” mentioned in the second commandment: “4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:5  thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.” (Exodus 20: 4-5)<br />Icons are man made, as opposed to relic, and do not deserve to be venerated: “The divine nature is completely uncircumscribable and cannot be depicted or represented by artists in any medium whatsoever.” (Iconoclastic Council, 754)<br />
    11. 11. Iconodules:<br />Icons are powerful didactic tools: “An image is, after all, a reminder; it is to the illiterate what a book is to the literate, and what the word is to hearing, the image is to sight.” (John of Damascus)<br />Icons are a valuable proxy by which the faithful could demonstrate their love and honor for the divine: “God created man to his own image” (Genesis 1:27)<br />Icons are a valid way to communicate Christ’s humanity and suffering: “How, indeed, can the Son of God be acknowledged to have been a man like us—he who was deigned to be called our brother—if he cannot be depicted?”<br />
    12. 12. Simon Magus and Patriarch Nikephoros<br />Khludov Psalter<br />850-75<br />
    13. 13. Theodora Instructing her Daughters in the Veneration of Icons, Madrid Skylitzes, 12thCentury CE<br />
    14. 14. Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy, Constantinople, 1400<br />
    15. 15. The Removal and Destruction of Church Images, from Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, 1563<br />
    16. 16. The Removal and Destruction of Religious Images from Wittenberg Cathedral, 1566.<br />
    17. 17. Political Iconoclasm:The French Revolution 1789-1799<br />Louis XIV,<br /> “The Sun King”<br />1643-1715<br />
    18. 18. <ul><li>Feared the intrigue of this courtiers and nobles.
    19. 19. Required his nobles to spend the majority of their time at his court in Versailles.
    20. 20. Establishes a court life based on the systematic neglect of noble estates and the peasants who worked them.</li></ul>HyacintheRigaud, Portrait of Louis XIV, 1701.<br />
    21. 21. Second Estate: Nobility<br />First Estate: Clergy<br />Untaxed<br />Untaxed<br />3 % of the Population<br />95 % of the Power<br />Third Estate: Everyone Else<br />Taxed<br />Three Estates<br />
    22. 22. Jean-Pierre Houel, The Storming of the Bastille, c. 1790.<br />
    23. 23. “We shall support it to the last drop of blood.”<br />The Overthrown Idol, 1791.<br />
    24. 24. The Greatest of Despots Overthrown by Liberty, The Dismantling of the Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV, 1792. <br />
    25. 25. Radiating Chapels and Ambulatory, St. Denis, Cathedral, Paris, France, 1145, defaced 1792.<br />
    26. 26. Ideological Iconoclasm:Nazi-Era ‘EntarteteKunst’<br />“Blut und Bodent” Poster for the Hitler Youth, c. 1937.<br />
    27. 27. Hubert Lanzinger, Der Bannertrager(The Standard Banner), 1934-1936.<br />
    28. 28. Ivo Saliger, The Judgment of Paris, 1939.<br />
    29. 29. Degenerate<br />“Art”<br />Cover of the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur BildendeKunste. <br />
    30. 30. “The defamation of ‘Racial’ Art,” from the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur BildendeKunst.<br />
    31. 31. “No further comment is needed here” from the pamphlet for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur BildendeKunst. <br />
    32. 32. Patrons at for the Nazi-Sponsored exhibit “Entartete ‘Kunst’” 1937, Reichskammer fur BildendeKunst. <br />
    33. 33. Loveland, Colorado, 2011<br />“The protesters want the exhibit removed. They believe that taxpayers’ dollars should not be going to pornography.”<br />--Jeanette De Melo, Archdiocese of Loveland<br />Protesters<br />There are many ways to express disagreement with the ideas expressed in an artwork that do not entail going against the founding principles of this country: the separation of church and state and the right to free speech.<br />--National Coalition Against Censorship<br />Enrique Chagoya, “The Misadventures of the Romantic Cannibals, 2010.<br />
    34. 34. Major Goals<br />Understand the different motivations for destroying images.<br />Understand the difference between vandalism and iconoclasm.<br />Understand the connection between violence against art and violence against humans and ideas.<br />Understand the similarities among all iconoclasms.<br />

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