The different forms of print based media techniques and technologies


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The different forms of print based media techniques and technologies

  1. 1. The Different Forms of Print Based Media Techniques and Technologies By Ryan McDonnell
  2. 2. HAND TECHNIQUES Etching, Intaglio, Linocut, Screen Print, Woodcut, Lithography
  3. 3. Etching Hand Technique Definition Etching is the process in which strong acid or a mordant (a substance used to set dyes onto fabrics or tissue sections) is applied to cut into unprotected parts of a metal surface to form a design in intaglio in the metal. The original process of Etching is used in modern manufacturing but other chemicals are sometimes used on other different kinds of material but as for the intaglio method of printmaking, it has become one of the most important techniques for old master prints and still remains widely used to this day. History “The Solider and his Wife”, an etching by Daniel Hopfer who was believed to have been the first to apply this technique to printmaking. Etching by Jacques Bellange, Gardener with basket c1612
  4. 4. Etching Hand Technique Types of Etching Methods of Etching
  5. 5. Intaglio Hand Technique Definition Intaglio is a technique in Hand Printing which uses an etched or engraved plate which tends to be made of metal (cooper or zinc) whilst its covered in ink. The image is then incised with a pointed tool with acid which allows the ink left in the recesses to create the desired print. Intaglio engraving, as a method of making prints, was invented in Germany by the 1430s, well after the woodcut print. Engraving had been used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork, including armour, musical instruments and religious objects since ancient times, and the niello technique, which involved rubbing an alloy into the lines to give a contrasting colour, also goes back to late antiquity. It has been suggested[by whom?] that goldsmiths began to print impressions of their work to record the design, and that printmaking developed from that. Martin Schongauer was one of the earliest known artists to exploit the copper-engraving technique, and Albrecht Dürer is one of the most famous intaglio artists. Italian and Netherlandish engraving began slightly after the Germans, but were well developed by 1500. Drypoint and etching were also German inventions of the fifteenth century, probably by the Housebook Master and Daniel Hopfer respectively. The golden age of artists engraving was 1450-1550, after which the technique lost ground to etching as a medium for artists, although engravings continued to be produced in huge numbers until after the invention of photography. Today intaglio engraving is largely used for currency, banknotes, passports and occasionally for high-value postage stamps. The appearance of engraving is sometimes mimicked for items such as wedding invitations by producing an embossment around lettering printed by another process (such as lithography or offset) to suggest the edges of an engraving plate. History Intaglio was first invented in Germany in the 1430s, long after the woodcut print. The engraving aspect of Intaglio Hand printing was used by goldsmiths, primarily to decorate metal work, this would include armour, musical instruments and even religious objects. It has been presumed that the development of this printmaking technique was due to the fact that goldsmiths recorded their designs and improved upon them. A modern Intaglio Handprint titled “Full Circle” by Candice Alexander “Ecce Home”by Martin Schongauer
  6. 6. Intaglio Hand Technique Types of Intaglio Methods of Intaglio
  7. 7. Linocut Hand Technique Definition Linocut is a printmaking technique, a variant of woodcut in which a sheet of linoleum (sometimes mounted on a wooden block) is used for the relief surface. A design is cut into the linoleum surface with a sharp knife, V-shaped chisel or gouge, with the raised (uncarved) areas representing a reversal (mirror image) of the parts to show printed. The linoleum sheet is inked with a roller (called a brayer), and then impressed onto paper or fabric. The actual printing can be done by hand or with a press. Linocut is a Hand printmakign technique which is variant of the woodcut printmaking technique. A sheet of linoleum which might sometimes be mounted on a wooden block Linocut Bar by Carl Eugen Keel History
  8. 8. Linocut Hand Technique Types of Linocut Methods of Linocut
  9. 9. Screenprint Hand Technique Definition Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a wovenmesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of silk or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance, and ink is forced through the mesh onto the printing surface. It is also known as Screen Printing, silkscreen, seriography, and serigraph. History
  10. 10. Screenprint Hand Technique Types of Linocut Methods of Linocut
  11. 11. Woodcut Hand Technique Definition Woodcut—formally known as xylography—is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with gouges. The areas to show 'white' are cut away with a knife or chisel, leaving the characters or image to show in 'black' at the original surface level. The block is cut along the grain of the wood (unlike wood engraving where the block is cut in the end-grain). In Europe beechwood was most commonly used[citation needed]; in Japan, a special type of cherry wood was used[citation needed]. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller (brayer), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks (where a different block is used for each color). The art of carving the woodcut can be called "xylography", but this is rarely used in English for images alone, although that and "xylographic" are used in connection with blockbooks, which are small books containing text and images in the same block. Single-leaf woodcut is a term for a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration. History
  12. 12. Woodcut Hand Technique Types of Linocut Methods of Linocut
  13. 13. Lithography Hand Technique Definition Lithography (from Greekλίθος - lithos, 'stone' + γράφω - graphο, 'I write') is a method for printing using a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface. Invented in 1796 by Bavarian author AloisSenefelder as a low-cost method of publishing theatrical works,[1][2] lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material. History
  14. 14. Lithography Hand Technique Types of Linocut Methods of Linocut