Print making report


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Print making report

  1. 1. is the process of making by , normally on . it gives multiple . Print is a shape made from a or or other object that is covered with ink and then it is pressed on to a flat surface like paper.
  2. 2. Known as IMPRESSION. Created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a prepared screen to a sheet of paper or other material. May also be printed in book form.
  3. 3. seems to have originated in China and started in Europe started around the 6th century.
  4. 4. In the early stages of print making, it was not considered an art form but by the 18th century art prints began to be considered as originals and in 19th century artists began to produce limited editions along with the technical information to authenticate the work.
  5. 5. Intaglio
  6. 6. where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Opposite of relief. Engraving Etching Mezzotint Aquatint Dry point
  7. 7. This is done using a tool called burin. It is a harder skill to learn. the metal burin is pushed through the metal to make the image. The deeper the burin is pushed the wider the lines get. The lines formed above the surface are then scraped off.
  8. 8. To make a print, the engraved plate is inked all over, then the ink is wiped off the surface, leaving only ink in the engraved lines. The plate is then put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper (often moistened to soften it).
  9. 9. This process can be repeated many times; typically several hundred impressions (copies) could be printed before the printing plate shows much sign of wear, except when drypoint, which gives much shallower lines, is used.
  10. 10. The process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by to decorate metalwork. The burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges.
  11. 11. In the 20th century, true engraving was revived as a serious art form by artists including Stanley William Hayter whose Studio 17 in Paris and New York City became the magnet for such artists as Pablo Picasso, Alberto Giacometti, Mauricio Lasansky and Joan Miró.
  12. 12. "Melencolia I", engraving by Albrecht Dürer, one of the most important printmakers.
  13. 13. Is a method of engraving areas of tone rather than lines. It is the first tonal method to be used. Mezzotint achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots through a metal tool with small teeth called a rocker. A good quality and richness in the print can be achieved.
  14. 14. An intaglio variant of engraving in which the image is formed from subtle gradations of light and shade. — from the Italian mezzo ("half") and tinta ("tone")—is a "dark manner" form of printmaking, which requires artists to work from dark to light.
  15. 15. To create a mezzotint, the surface of a copper printing plate is roughened evenly all over with the aid of a tool known as a rocker; the image is then formed by smoothing the surface with a tool known as a burnisher.
  16. 16. The mezzotint printmaking method was invented by Ludwig von Siegen (1609–1680). The process was used widely in England from the mid- eighteenth century, to reproduce oil paintings and portraits.
  17. 17. The Fruit Peeler, Waller ant Valliant
  18. 18. Head of a Man Wearing a Turban, 1760 by Thomas Frye
  19. 19. The process is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470-1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking.
  20. 20. An etching is opposite of a woodcut in that the raised portions of an etching remain blank while the crevices hold ink. In pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy or acrylic ground. The artist then draws through the ground with a pointed etching needle.
  21. 21. The plate itself is covered with wax and the artist draw with a sharp needle like instrument. This is then exposed to acid which then eats through the metal leaving lines in the plate.
  22. 22. The plate is then dipped into acid (e.g. nitric acid or ferric chloride). The acid bites into the surface of the plate where it was exposed. Biting is a printmaking term to describe the acid’s etching. After plate is sufficiently bitten, the plate is removed from acid bath, and ground is removed to prepare for the next step in printing.
  23. 23. Artists using this technique include Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, Francisco Goya, Whistler, Otto Dix, James Ensor, Edward Hopper, Käthe Kollwitz, Pablo Picasso, Cy Twombly, Lucas van Leyden, Carlos Alvarado Lang.
  24. 24. The Three Crosses, etching by Rembrandt
  25. 25. Aquatint is a form of engraving with acid on a plate to some extent covered with varnish that produces a print somewhat similar to a watercolor. The plate is capable of holding ink and it is passed through printing press along with a sheet of paper which leaves an engraved image on the paper.
  26. 26. Like etching, aquatint technique involves the application of acid to make marks in a metal plate. Where the etching technique uses a needle to make lines that retain ink, aquatint relies on powdered rosin which is acid resistant in the ground to create a tonal effect. The rosin is applied in a light dusting by a fan booth, the rosin is then cooked until set on the plate.
  27. 27. At this time the rosin can be burnished or scratched out to affect its tonal qualities. The tonal variation is controlled by the level of acid exposure over large areas, and thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time. Francisco Goya used aquatint for most of his prints.
  28. 28. "The sleep of Reason creates monsters", aquatint and etching by Francisco Goya
  29. 29. The Giant, Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
  30. 30. The Russian Dance, 1769 Jean-Baptiste Le Prince
  31. 31. A variant of engraving, done with a sharp point, rather than a v- shaped burin. While engraved lines are very smooth and hard-edged, drypoint scratching leaves a rough burr at the edges of each line. This burr gives drypoint prints a characteristically soft, and sometimes blurry, line quality.
  32. 32. The technique appears to have been invented by the Housebook Master, a south German fifteenth century artist, all of whose prints are in drypoint only. Among the most famous artists of the old master print: Albrecht Dürer produced 3 drypoints before abandoning the technique; Rembrandt used it frequently, but usually in conjunction with etching and engraving.
  33. 33. Maternal Caress, 1891 Mary Cassatt
  34. 34. The Three Tress, Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn)
  35. 35. where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen. Screen printing Pochoir
  36. 36. Screen printing (occasionally known as or ) creates prints by using a fabric stencil technique.
  37. 37. It is generally originated in China. It involves the process of allowing ink to pass through different areas until the final composite image is achieved.
  38. 38. The ink is simply pushed through the stencil against the surface of the paper, most often with the aid of a squeegee. Generally, the technique uses a natural or synthetic 'mesh' fabric stretched tightly across a rectangular 'frame,' much like a stretched canvas.
  39. 39. The fabric can be , , , or even . Unlike many other printmaking processes, a printing press is not required, as screen printing is essentially stencil printing.
  40. 40. Cracking ink effect is when the ink procedures an intentional cracked surface after drying.
  41. 41. Is the use to printed colors onto dark background fabrics, they work by removing the dye of the garments , this means they leave a much softer texture.
  42. 42. Is an additive to plastic inks which raises the print of the garment, creating a 3D feel and look to the design. Mostly used when printing on apparel.
  43. 43. Consist of a glue printed onto the fabric and then flock material is applied for a velvet touch.
  44. 44. Is much like flock, but instead of a velvet touch and look it has a reflective/mirror look to it.
  45. 45. Is when the art work is created and then separated into four colors (CMYK) which combine to create the full spectrum of colors needed for photographic prints.
  46. 46. Is when metallic flakes become an additive in the ink base to create this sparkle effect- Usually available in gold or silver but can be mixed to make most colours.
  47. 47. Is when a clear base laid over previously printed inks to create a shiny finish.
  48. 48. Is similar to glitter, but smaller particles suspended in the ink. A glue is printed onto the fabric, then nano-scale fibers applied on it.
  49. 49. Is highly reflective, solvent based ink.
  50. 50. Is a special ink additive for printing onto technical or water proof fabrics.
  51. 51. Is the most common ink used in coomercial garment decoration. Plastisol inks require heat (approximately 150 o C (300 o F )
  52. 52. Is relatively new breed of ink and printing with the benefits of plastirol but without the two main toxic components. It also has a soft texture.
  53. 53. Is a milky colored additive that is added to plastisol have a suede feel.
  54. 54. These penetrate the fabric more than the plastisol inks and create a much colored garments.
  55. 55. T-shirt, 1975–77 Vivienne Westwood Example of sreen print
  56. 56. Roofs and Sky, 1939 Louis Lozowick
  57. 57. is a direct method of hand coloring throughout a stencil. This technique involves spray-painting which is done around a three- dimensional object to create a pessimistic of the object instead of an activist of a stencil design.
  58. 58. Illustration (plate 4) by E. A. Séguy (1889-1985)
  59. 59. A printmaking technique made using the Iowa Foil Printer, developed by Virginia A. Myers from the commercial foil stamping process. This uses gold leaf and acrylic foil in the printmaking process.
  60. 60. Shoot for the moon by Stephanie Stein
  61. 61. where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image. .
  62. 62. Lithography mono typing digital techniques
  63. 63. is a process of printing an image using a stone or metal plate with a smooth flat surface. An image is drawn on the flat surface of limestone or metal plate using a greasy medium.
  64. 64. A technique invented in 1798 by Alois Senefelder and based on the chemical repulsion of oil and water. Some of the artists who used the technique:  Honoré Daumier  Vincent van Gogh  George Bellows  Pierre Bonnard
  65. 65. The Boxer, Théodore Gericault
  66. 66. La Goulue, Lithograph poster byToulouse- Lautrec
  67. 67. is done by drawing an image on a smooth and non-absorbent surface. Using a printing press which holds up the ink the image is transferred on to the paper .
  68. 68. The surface, or matrix, was historically a copper etching plate, but in contemporary work it can vary from zinc or glass to acrylic glass. The image is then transferred onto a sheet of paper by pressing the two together, usually using a printing-press.
  69. 69. may include : * digital printing, *photographic mediums, or a * combination of digital, *photographic, and * traditional processes.
  70. 70. Refers to images printed using a digital printer instead of a traditional printing press. These images can be printed to a variety of substrates including paper, cloth, or plastic canvas.
  71. 71. Istvan Horkay, Ralph Goings, Enrique Chagoya
  72. 72. Pigment- based Ink Printing Dye- based Ink Printing Giclée – a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for digital prints made on inkjet printers.
  73. 73.  Line - the most basic element for artistic creation. It can be created as a mark that connects two dots and comes in all shapes, sizes, and is infinitely manipulable.
  74. 74.  Shape - the form that a combination of lines take, resulting in the subject of the image.
  75. 75.  Form - the 3-D version of a shape and can be measured by height, width and depth.
  76. 76.  Space- determines the way that objects relate to each other within the artwork, it’s the location on which the elements are placed.
  77. 77.  Color- created by the way our eye interprets light and has a huge impact on the way a piece is interpreted by the audience.
  78. 78.  Texture -the illusion of a tactile surface that is achieved in 2-D format.