Movements: Terms: The New York School: Action painting Pop Art Appropriation Minimal Art & Earthworks Installation Photorealism Assemblage Conceptual Art Performance Neo-Expressionism Happening Neo-Dada Pluralism Feminism Digital Postmodernism Chapter Twenty-Two Art Since 1945
The works are not “visual fields to see into,” like the Abstract Expressionists, but rather an “object to be looked at.”
Repetition was an important concept, as was the industrial feel, with no sign of the artist’s brush.
ROBERT SMITHSON, Spiral Jetty, 1970. Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (algae) at Great Salt Lake, Utah. 1,500’ x 15’ x 3 1/2’.
Photorealism (superrealism, hyperrealism) is a style of realism that the camera inspired.
The stark images seek not to imply reality, but the imitation of reality as seen through the camera lens.
CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic on canvas, 8’ 11” x 6’ 11” x 2”.
Audrey Flack, Wheel of Fortune (Vanitas), 1977-78, Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8x8’
Telephone Booths (1968), Oil on canvas. Painting by Richard Estes .
Conceptual artists desired to get rid of the concept of art as object because they were opposed to the art market, much like Duchamp and the Dada “ready-mades.”
Their desire to get rid of the art object was motivated by opposition to the burgeoning art market, which equated art with luxury commodities
Felix Gonzalez-Torres “Untitled” As installed for The Museum of Modern Art, New York "Projects 34: Felix Gonzalez-Torres" May 16 - June 30, 1992, in 24 locations throughout New York City
Felix Gonzalez-Torres, Untitled (Public Opinion), 1991. Black rod licorice candy, individually wrapped in cellophane (endless supply), ideal weight, 700 pounds, dimensions variable.
Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (For Stockholm), 1992 15-watt light bulbs, extension cords, porcelain light sockets Overall dimensions vary with installation Twelve parts: 62 ft. in length each
BRUCE NAUMAN, The True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths (Window or Wall Sign), 1967. Neon with glass tubing suspension frame, 4’ 11” x 4’ 7” x 2”. Private collection.
The history of art is characterized by a male gaze – treating men as subjects and women (often) as objects
Feminism was a social and political movement in the 70’s that paved the way for more diversity in art and recognition of women artists.
They believed culture created the differences (and inequalities) between the sexes
A rebuke to the male-dominant industrial look of Minimalism.
Honored female art and the domestic realm Miriam Shapiro, Heartfelt , 1979. Feminism and Feminist Art
JUDY CHICAGO, The Dinner Party, 1979. Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery, 48’ x 48’ x 48’ installed.
GUERRILLA GIRLS, The Advantages of Being A Woman Artist, 1988. Poster.
BARBARA KRUGER, Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1983.
JENNY HOLZER, Untitled (Selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series, The Survival Series, Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED electronic display signboard, 16” x 162’ x 6”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, December 1989–February 1990
CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still #35, 1979. Black-and-white photograph, 10” x 8”.
Rejection of the doctrine of the supremacy of reason, the notion of truth, and the idea that we could create a better, if not utopian society.
Artists realized that art did not always “progress” forward - they often looked back to art history for inspiration. There were so many directions, that it was difficult to continue putting a name on each direction.
Frequently use styles and references from the past – often with ironic or sarcastic effect
Feminism taught historians that the published history may hold other layers, that have yet to be revealed.
Pluralism is the idea that art can take many directions at the same time. There is no longer any single leading artistic center, style, or media.
Appropriation challenges traditional ideas about authenticity, individuality, copyright laws, and the location of meaning within a work of art.
Video and digital technology become more widely used as well as installation, conceptual art, performance and multimedia art
Artist as grand creator
Focus on product
Value in novelty
Good = beautiful (or
Focus on effectiveness
Good = ?
Neo-expressionist art emerges which renews interest in emotion and physicality of paint/media combinations
They sought to bring back the sincerity and emotional intensity of the Expressionist movement.
JULIAN SCHNABEL, The Walk Home, 1984–1985. Oil, plates, copper, bronze, fiberglass, and bondo on wood, 9’ 3” x 19’ 4”.
” I don’t really care about anatomy. Something perfectly drawn to me is just somebody showing you they can draw.”
SUSAN ROTHENBERG, Tattoo, 1979. Acrylic, flashe on canvas, 5’ 7” x 8’ 7 1/8” x 1 1/4”.
ANSELM KIEFER, Nigredo, 1984. Oil paint on photosensitized fabric, acrylic emulsion, straw, shellac, relief paint on paper pulled from painted wood, 11’ x 18’.
LEON GOLUB, Mercenaries (IV), 1980. Acrylic on linen, 10’ x 19’ 2”.
CHRIS OFILI, The Holy Virgin Mary, 1996. Paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, elephant dung on linen, 7’ 11” x 5’ 11 5/16”.
MATTHEW BARNEY, Cremaster cycle, installation at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2003.
Damien Hirst’s “The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living”
Damien Hirst A Thousand Years 1990 Steel, glass, flies, maggots, MDF, insect-o-cutor, cow's head, sugar, water 213 x 427 x 213 cm
Damien Hirst Bad Environment for White Monochrome Paintings (1993) Steel, glass, acrylic on canvas, plastic containers for food and water, sarchophaga and musca domestica
“Dream” “Broken Dream” “ You’ve got to take the rough with the smooth” – Damien Hirst on “Dream”/”Broken Dream”
Francis Bacon Figure with Meat, 1954
"Where There's a Will a and glass cabinet with painted resin, plaster and cast metal pills, 72 by 108 by 4 inches, 2007,
Agnes Martin. (American, born Canada. 1912-2004). The Tree . 1964. Oil and pencil on canvas, 6 x 6' (182.8 x 182.8 cm).
Damien Hirst, Saint Sebastian, Exquisite Pain
Kehinde Wiley: Le Roi a la Chasse (2006)
DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York.
Kerry James Marshall, “Past Times”, 1997, Acrylic and mixed media on canvas, 9’6”x13’
Child's drawing (source for Glenn Ligon's Malcolm X (Version 1) #1 ), 2000 watercolor on printed paper
Malcolm X (Version 1) #1 , 2000 Glenn Ligon (born 1960) Flashe paint and silkscreen on primed canvas, 96 x 72 inches
Cai Guo-Qiang , "Inopportune: Stage One“, 2004 Cars, sequenced mulit-channel light tubes, dimensions variable Installation view: MASS MoCA, North Adams, Massachusetts