Modern to Contemporary Art European and American After 1945
World War II and Its Aftermath <ul><li>Understand the shift of the Western art center from Paris to New York as a result of world events during the after World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the interest in multiculturalism and the acceptance of art forms beyond the Western canon. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize various art styles that were popular during the second half of the 19 th century and describe them. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall leading artists and the respective styles and/or media with which they were associated. </li></ul>
Painting and Sculpture 1945-1970 <ul><li>Examine the issues, themes, and forms of art from 1945-1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that due to World War II, New York City becomes the center of the art world. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the following art styles and details about their appearance and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-War Expressionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract Expressionism (Gestural and Chromatic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-painterly Abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimalism and other forms of sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul></ul>
ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, Man Pointing , (no. 5 of 6), 1947. Bronze, 5’ 10” x 3’ 1” x 1’ 5 5/8”. Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines (Nathan Emory Cofﬁn Collection).
FRANCIS BACON, Painting , 1946. Oil and pastel on linen, 6’ 5 7/8” x 4’ 4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
JEAN DUBUFFET, Vie Inquiète ( Uneasy Life ), 1953. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3” x 6’ 4”. Tate Gallery, London.
Abstract Expressionism <ul><li>Understand Abstract Expressionism as the first major avante-garde art style to be developed in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast gestural and chromatic abstraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollock and De Kooning are generally considered gestural abstraction painters (action painters). </li></ul><ul><li>Newman and Rothko are recognized as chromatic abstraction painters. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss what the Abstract Expressionists were expressing through their work. </li></ul>
JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 ( Lavender Mist ), 1950. Oil, enamel, and aluminum paint on canvas, 7’ 3” x 9’ 10”. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund).
Hans Namuth, Jackson Pollock painting in his studio in Springs, Long Island, New York, 1950. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Tucson.
WILLEM DE KOONING, Woman I , 1950–1952. Oil on canvas, 6’ 3 7/8” x 4’ 10”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
BARNETT NEWMAN, Vir Heroicus Sublimis , 1950–1951. Oil on canvas, 7’ 11 3/8” x 17’ 9 1/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heller).
MARK ROTHKO No. 14 , 1961 Oil on canvas, 9’ 6” x 8’ 9”. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, (Helen Crocker Russell Fund Purchase).
Modernist Formalism <ul><li>Understand the origins of modernist formalism and its theoretical basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the formal elements of the art styles known as Post-Painterly Abstraction and Minimalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify individual artists and representative works of art. </li></ul>
Post-Painterly Abstraction <ul><li>Examine the formal elements of the style described by Clement Greenberg as the cool and rational Post-Painterly Abstraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the artistic values/priorities of the Post-Painterly Abstraction artists. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the difference between the Abstract Expressionism and Post-Painterly Abstraction. </li></ul>
ELLSWORTH KELLY, Red Blue Green , 1963. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 5/8” x 11’ 3 7/8”. Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego (gift of Dr.and Mrs. Jack M. Farris).
FRANK STELLA, Mas o Menos ( More or Less ), 1964. Metallic powder in acrylic emulsion on canvas, 9” 10” x 13’ 8 1/2”. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris (purchase 1983 with participation of Scaler Foundation).
HELEN FRANKENTHALER, The Bay , 1963. Acrylic on canvas, 6’ 8 7/8” x 6’ 9 7/8”. Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit.
MORRIS LOUIS, Saraband , 1959. Acrylic resin on canvas, 8’ 5 1/8” x 12’ 5”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Minimalism and Other Forms of Sculpture <ul><li>Examine the formal elements of Minimalism, a predominantly sculptural movement and its emphasis on objecthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall other sculptors, their preferred media, and stylistic features of their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the artistic qualities of Minimalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Are Minimalism and Post-Painterly Abstraction valid forms of art? Explain. </li></ul>
TONY SMITH, Die , 1962. Steel, 6’ x 6’ x 6’. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Jane Smith in honor of Agnes Gund).
DONALD JUDD, Untitled , 1969. Brass and colored fluorescent Plexiglass on steel brackets, 10 units, 6 1/8” x 2’ x 2’ 3” each, with 6” intervals. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972). Art Judd Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York.
MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington D.C., 1981-1983
Expressive Sculpture <ul><li>Understand the diverse ideas, feelings, influences, and forms of sculpture in contrast to the Minimalist forms. </li></ul>
LOUISE NEVELSON, Tropical Garden II , 1957–1959. Wood painted black, 5’ 11 1/2” x 10’ 11 3/4” x 1’. Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
Pop Art <ul><li>Understand the popular trends of traditional artistic devices and consumerism in Pop Art. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss possible reasons for the development of Pop Art. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify artists associated with Pop Art and characteristic elements of their work </li></ul>
Painting and Sculpture since 1970 <ul><li>Recognize some of the artists associated with Neo-Expressionism and describe characteristics of their work. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall major feminist artists and characteristics associated with each of them. What were the goals or objectives of feminist artists? What specific features in their various works expressed these goals/objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Study other forms of social and political art and the diverse methods the artists used to convey their different messages. What were some of the social and political issues that artists sought to address through their work? </li></ul>
JULIAN SCHNABEL, The Walk Home , 1984–1985. Oil, plates, copper, bronze, fiberglass, and Bondo on wood, 9’ 3” x 19’ 4”. Broad Art Foundation and the Pace Gallery, New York.
ANSELM KIEFER, Nigredo , 1984. Oil paint on photosensitized fabric, acrylic emulsion, straw, shellac, relief paint on paper pulled from painted wood, 11’ x 18’. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (gift of Friends of the Philadelphia Museum of Art).
JUDY CHICAGO, The Dinner Party , 1979. Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery, 48’ x 48’ x 48’. Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn.
CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still #35 , 1979. Gelatinsilverprint, 10” x 8”. Private collection.
FAITH RINGGOLD, Who’s Afraid of Aunt Jemima?, 1983. Acrylic on canvas with fabric borders, quilted, 7’ 6” x 6’ 8”. Private collection.
CHRIS OFILI, The Holy Virgin Mary , 1996. Paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, elephant dung on linen, 7’ 11” x 5’ 11 5/16”. The Saatchi Collection, London.
JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH, Trade ( Gifts for Trading Land with White People ), 1992. Oil & mixed media on canvas, 5’ x 14’2”. Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk.
Architecture and Site-Specific Art <ul><li>Examine the organic and fluid forms developed as new models for modernist architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the distinctions between the works of Modernist and Postmodern architects. Support your distinctions with examples of both movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the development of site-specific art movements such as earthworks </li></ul>
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-1959.
alternate view FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (exterior view from the northwest), New York, 1943–1959 (photo 1962).
LE CORBUSIER, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950–1955.
LE CORBUSIER, interior of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950-1955.
JOERN UTZON, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, 1959–1972.
EERO SAARINEN, Trans World Airlines terminal (terminal 5), John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York, 1956-1962.
LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE and PHILIP JOHNSON, Seagram Building, New York, 1956-1958.
Postmodern Architecture <ul><li>Examine the elements and issues of Postmodern architecture in its use of classical and colonial forms as well as later deconstructivist forms. </li></ul>
MICHAEL GRAVES, The Portland Building, Portland, Oregon, 1980.
ROBERT VENTURI, JOHN RAUCH and DENISE SCOTT BROWN, house in eastern Delaware, 1978–1983.
RICHARD ROGERS and RENZO PIANO, Georges Pompidou National Center of Art and Culture (the “Beaubourg”), Paris, France, 1977.
GÜNTER BEHNISCH, Hysolar Institute Building, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1987.
FRANK GEHRY, Guggenheim Bilbao Museo, Bilbao, Spain, 1997.
DANIEL LIBESKIND, Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, 2006
Site Specific Art <ul><li>Understand the development of Environmental and Site Specific Art as an outgrowth of ecological and environmental concerns. </li></ul>
RICHARD SERRA, Tilted Arc , 1981. Jacob K. Javits Federal Plaza, New York City, 1981.
Performance and Conceptual Art and New Media <ul><li>Examine the innovative forms of Performance Art and Happenings which combined two- and three-dimensional art along with other arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gain a basic understanding of the meaning of conceptual art </li></ul><ul><li>Recall some of the new media used to create art in the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries </li></ul>
Alternatives to Modernist Formalism <ul><li>Examine the expressive qualities of directions in sculptural forms outside of Minimalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the development of Performance Art and Happenings, combining two- and three-dimensional art forms along with other arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object . </li></ul>
JEAN TINGUELY, Homage to New York , 1960, just prior to its self-destruction in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
Conceptual Art <ul><li>Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object and the idea itself as a work of art. </li></ul>
JOSEPH KOSUTH, One and Three Chairs , 1965. Wooden folding chair, photographic copy of a chair, and photographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair; chair, 2’ 8 3/8” x 1’ 2 7/8” x 1’ 8 7/8”; photo panel, 3’ x 2’ 1/8”; text panel, 2’ 2’ 1/8”. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Larry Aldrich Foundation Fund).
BRUCE NAUMAN, The True Artist Helps the World by Revealing Mystic Truths , 1967. Neon with glass tubing suspension frame, 4’ 11” x 4’ 7” x 2”. Private collection.
Postmodernism in Painting, Sculpture, and New Media <ul><li>Understand the inclusion of traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness in Postmodern art. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine Neo-expressionist interest in intense emotions and in the physicality of paint and media combinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the contemporary political content of feminist and cultural heritage art. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the use of new video and digital technologies available in the making of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand cultural criticism as inherent to Postmodernism. </li></ul>
Postmodern Painting and Other Media <ul><li>Understand the traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine Neo-expressionist intense emotions and the physicality of media combinations. </li></ul>
New Technologies for Art <ul><li>Examine the expressive use of video and digital technologies by Postmodern artists. </li></ul>
NAM JUNE PAIK, Video still from Global Groove , 1973. Color videotape, sound, 30 minutes. Collection of the artist.
ADRIAN PIPER, Cornered , 1988. Mixed-media installation of variable size; video monitor, table, and birth certificates. Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago.
BILL VIOLA, The Crossing , 1996. Video/sound installation with two channels of color video projection onto screens 16 ’ high. Private collection.
DAVID EM, Nora, 1979. Computer-generated color photograph, 1’ 5” x 1’ 11”. Private collection.
JENNY HOLZER, Untitled ( selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series, The Survival Series, Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text ), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED electronic display signboard, 16” x 162’ x 6”. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, December 1989–February 1990 (partial gift of the artist, 1989).
MATTHEW BARNEY, Cremaster c ycle, installation at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2003.