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# Week2 Visual Elements Part2

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### Week2 Visual Elements Part2

1. 1. Major Types of Space <ul><li>2D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The picture plane is the flat surface of a two-dimensional work. The space or depth is implied - artists use many devices to give the illusion of depth: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressing the 2D nature of an artwork or any of its elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Space The use of the elements to create the illusion of 3D on a 2D surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Dimensional Space (actual space) </li></ul>
2. 2. Implied Space <ul><li>Two dimensional space has only height and width . There exists the picture plane and the illusion of the negative (ground) and positive (figure) space. </li></ul>Maharana Amar Singh II , Prince Sangram Singh… c. 1705-08.
3. 3. <ul><li>Types of Depth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position -Placing an object higher on the page makes it appear farther back then objects placed lower on the page. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlapping -When an object overlaps another object it appears closer to the viewer, and the object behind the object appears farther away. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size Variation -Smaller objects look farther away in the distance. Larger objects look closer. </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. More Spatial Indicators <ul><li>Color -Bright colors look like they are closer to you and neutral colors look like they are farther away. </li></ul><ul><li>Value -Lighter values look like they are farther back and darker value look like they are closer. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp or Diminishing Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Interpenetration </li></ul><ul><li>Warm and cool color contrasts </li></ul><ul><li>Converging Parallels (Perspective) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear Perspective or Isometric Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Perspective </li></ul></ul>
5. 7. Rachel Whiteread Negative space
7. 11. Rachel Whiteread, Ghost , 1990
8. 14. Degrees of implied depth
9. 15. Shallow Space <ul><li>The illusion of limited depth. With shallow space, the imagery appears to move only a slight distance back from the picture plane </li></ul>
10. 16. Maharana Amar Singh II , Prince Sangram Singh… c. 1705-08.
11. 17. Chris Johanson
12. 18. Henry Darger
13. 19. Chris Ware from “Quimby the Mouse”
14. 20. KARA WALKER
15. 21. Atmospheric Perspective <ul><li>The illusion of deep space produced in 2D works by lightening values, softening details and textures, reducing value contrasts, and neutralizing colors in objects as they recede </li></ul>
16. 22. HUANG GONGWANG, Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, Yuan dynasty, 1347-1350. Section of a handscroll, ink on paper, 1' 7/8&quot; x 20' 9&quot;. National Palace Museum, Taibei.
17. 25. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris.
18. 27. Friedrich, Caspar David, 1774-1840 “Easter Morning” Date1830-5 Oil on canvas 17 1/4x13 5/8&quot;
19. 28. JACOB VAN RUISDAEL, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas, approx. 1’ 10” x 2’ 1”.
20. 29. &quot;A Storm in the Rocky Mountains, Mt. Rosalie&quot; - by Albert Bierstadt, 1866
21. 30. Deep and Infinite Space <ul><li>Pictorial space in which the picture frame acts as a window which objects can be seen receding endlessly </li></ul>
22. 31. Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo (Volpedo 1868 - 1907) “ Il sole” (The Sun) , 1904 Oil on Canvas, 150x150 cm
23. 32. James McNeill Whistler, Nocturne: Blue and Silver—Battersea Reach, 1872–78, Oil on canvas
24. 33. MARK ROTHKO, No. 14, 1961 Oil on canvas, 9’ 6” x 8’ 9”.
25. 34. Kasimir Malevich, Suprematist Composition: White on White , 1918 “ The free white abyss, infinity are before us all”
26. 36. Robert Ryman , Surface Veil I, 1970. Oil and blue chalk on linen, 143 15/16 x 144 inches
27. 37. “ White is tamed light: the dynamic of our contemplation.” -Murilo Mendes
28. 38. Perspective <ul><li>Any graphic system used in creating the illusion of 3D images and/or spatial relationships on a 2D surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric, Linear, and Infinite </li></ul><ul><li>Vanishing Point = the point in a perspective drawing to which parallel lines appear to converge </li></ul>
29. 39. Vanishing Point , 1971
30. 41. One Point Two Point Three Point
31. 44. Edward Burtynsky Manufacturing #18, Cankun Factory, Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, 2005
32. 45. Practice Perspective:
33. 46. Vanishing Points
34. 47. Draw a vertical line anywhere – perpendicular to the horizon
35. 52. William Kentridge
36. 54. Draw a vertical line anywhere – perpendicular to the horizon
37. 60. Michael Boremans
38. 61. CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Tempera on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. Perspective prior to the Renaissance
39. 62. Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem , detail of Maesta Alter, 1308-11, Tempra on Panel, 40x21” Perspective prior to the Renaissance
40. 63. MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1428. Fresco, 21’ x 10’ 5”.
41. 64. DIRK BOUTS, Last Supper (central panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament), Saint Peter’s, Louvain, Belgium, 1464–1468. Oil on wood, approx. 6’ x 5’.
42. 65. PERUGINO, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1481–1483. Fresco, 11’ 5 1/2” x 18’ 8 1/2”.
43. 66. Pere Borrell del Caso Escaping Criticism , 1874
44. 67. Isometric Projection <ul><li>A technical drawing system in which a 3D object is presented two-dimensionally; starting with the nearest vertical edge, the horizontal edges of the object are drawn at a 30 degree angle and all verticals are projected perpendicularly from a horizontal base </li></ul>
45. 69. Selim II receiving the Safavid ambassador in the palace at Edirne in 1567. Nehzetu'l-Ahbar der Sefer-i Sigetvar Nakkas Osman 1568. Hazine. 1339, folio 247b
46. 70. From the Procession of the Guilds: the Procession of Makers of Bath-towels, Sur-nama ('Book of Festivities')., Istanbul, 1582. Hazine 1344, folios 338b-39a
47. 72. <ul><li>During the 20th century, _______ and _______ were added to the visual elements used by artists. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rough and soft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time and motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outline and contour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color and value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shape and mass </li></ul></ul>
48. 73. <ul><li>Art that physically moves, as Alexander Calder's mobiles do, are called ______ art. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) kinetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) time-and-space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C) sequential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D) value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E) perspective </li></ul></ul>
49. 74. Tim Hawkinson
50. 76. Claude Monet, Haystacks 1890-1891
51. 77. GIACOMO BALLA, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 3/8” x 3’ 7 1/4”. Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
52. 78. Giacomo Balla, Swifts Paths of Movement – Dynamic Sequences
53. 79. Umberto Boccioni. States of Mind: The Farewells . 1911. Oil on canvas. 70. x 96cm.
54. 80. MARCEL DUCHAMP, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 10 “x 2’ 11”. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE, Nude Descending Stairs, 1884
55. 81. UMBERTO BOCCIONI, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 (cast 1931). Bronze, 3’ 7 7/8” high x 2’ 10 7/8” x 1’ 3 3/4”. Museum of Modern Art, New York
56. 82. Nam June Paik, Zen for TV 1963, 1976 version manipulated vintage television and components 19 x 22 1/2 x 18 in. (48.3 x 57.2 x 45.7 cm) Smithsonian American Art Museum
57. 84. • Texture: surface quality (Actual or Visual, implied) • Impasto • Pattern (regular repetition) • Space: 2 & 3-dimensional (height, width &/or depth) (Actual or Implied) • Positive/negative; figure/ground • Overlapping; foreground/background • Position • Linear & isometric perspective • Atmospheric perspective & chiaroscuro • Foreshortening • Time & motion: elapsed, implied, Kinetic Chapter Four-B Design Elements