Week6 mediterranean greek_part2


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mediterranean, greek, classical, helenistic, sculpture, ancient, egyptian, art, art appreciation, art history

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Week6 mediterranean greek_part2

  1. 1. Egypt <ul><li>Knowledge of Egyptian civilization is almost entirely based on tombs and their contents </li></ul><ul><li>Order and Stability - Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was relatively stable when compared to Mesopotamia – which comprised of warring city states </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Sumerian art – Egyptian art was religious </li></ul>
  2. 2. IMHOTEP, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE. (earliest building with name of architect)
  3. 3. Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV. From left: Pyramids of Menkaure, ca. 2490–2472 BCE; Khafre, ca. 2520–2494 BCE; and Khufu, ca. 2551–2528 BCE. <ul><li>Three Pyramids of Gizeh (Giza) (c. 2570 – 2500 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Used no mortar </li></ul><ul><li>Burial places of the pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>Sides of the pyramids face north, east, south, west </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids face rising sun </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 million stone blocks weigh 2.5 tons each </li></ul>
  4. 5. Model of the pyramid complex, Gizeh, Egypt. 1. Pyramid of Menkaure, 2. Pyramid of Khafre, 3. Mortuary temple of Khafre, 4. Causeway, 5. Great Sphinx 6. Valley temple of Khafre, 7. Pyramid of Khufu, 8. Pyramids of the royal family and mastabas of nobles
  5. 6. Great Sphinx (with Pyramid of Khafre in the background at left), Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2520–2494 BCE. Sandstone, approx. 65’ high, 240’ long.
  6. 7. Palette of King Narmer (left, back; right, front), from Hierakonpolis, Egypt, Predynastic, ca. 3000–2920 BCE. Slate, approx. 2’ 1” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  7. 8. Palette of King Narmer <ul><li>(circa 3000 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremonial / cosmetic Palette </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by King Narmur </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizes Hierarchical scale – indicates Narmer’s status </li></ul><ul><li>Lower body in profile, torso viewed frontally, head in profile, eye frontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each body part shown to its best advantage/most effective view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enemies shown from above </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Menkaure and Khamerernebty (?), from Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV, ca. 2490–2472 BCE. Graywacke, approx. 4’ 6 1/2” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Egyptian art was “directed not toward the variable, but toward the constant…” -Erwin Panofsky Rendered according to a specific canon of proportions Closely adhered to the block form.
  9. 10. Seated scribe from his mastaba at Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty V, ca. 2450–2350 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris.
  10. 11. Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1400–1350 BCE. Fresco on dry plaster, approx. 2’ 8” high. British Museum, London.
  11. 12. Akhenaton <ul><li>ca. 1550–1295 B.C.(Dynasty 18) </li></ul><ul><li>Represents Pharoah who promoted monotheism for the sun god Aten </li></ul><ul><li>artistic innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Unique in Egyptian style – breaks with severe formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Once rigid postures became more relaxed, naturalistic and more intimate </li></ul>
  12. 13. THUTMOSE, Nefertiti, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Painted limestone, approx. 1’ 8” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin.
  13. 16. Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353–1335 BCE. Limestone, approx. 12 1/4” high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin. The carving on the right is an example of sunken relief, in which the outline is carved deeply into the surface and the figures are modeled from the surface down.
  14. 17. Death mask of Tutankhamen, from the innermost coffin in his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of semiprecious stones, 1’ 9 1/4” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  15. 20. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290–1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, approx. 1’ 6” high. British Museum, London.
  16. 21. Aegean
  17. 22. Landscape with swallows (Spring Fresco), from Room Delta 2, Akrotiri, Thera (Cyclades), Greece, ca. 1650 BCE. Fresco, approx. 7’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  18. 23. Figurine of a woman, from Syros (Cyclades), Greece, ca. 2500–2300 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  19. 24. Bull-leaping, from the palace at Knossos (Crete), Greece, ca. 1450–1400 BCE. Fresco, approx. 2’ 8” high, including border. Archaeological Museum, Herakleion.
  20. 25. Goya, The Speed and Daring of Juanito Apiñani in the Ring of Madrid 1815-16 Etching and aquatint, 245 x 355 mm
  21. 26. Minoan Vessels c. 1800 BCE c. 1500 BCE
  22. 27. Greek Art <ul><li>Geometric 900 BCE - 700 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric shapes and patterns in art </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archaic: 660 BCE - 480 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-figure vase painting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical: 480 BCE - 323 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Hellenistic: 323 BCE - 146 BCE </li></ul>
  23. 28. &quot;Except the blind forces of nature, nothing moves in this world which is not Greek in its origin.&quot; - Sir Henry Maine <ul><li>Revival of Greek arts again and again in Western art history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Renaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neo-Classical style after the French Revolution of 1789 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Greek Revival style </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. Approx. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  25. 30. Ca. 600 BCE Black-Figure Ware Late Archaic Style
  26. 31. Red-Figure Ware Ca. 500 BCE
  27. 32. Mentuemhet, from Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI, ca. 650 BCE. Granite, approx. 4’ 5” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  28. 33. <ul><li>Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. -schematic definition of anatomy (lines) devotional or funerary statues of young men </li></ul>
  29. 35. Kleobis and Biton, ca 575 BCE Kouros, 550 BCE
  30. 36. Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. <ul><li>Muscle definition is not as dependent on line </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes are more rounded </li></ul><ul><li>Facial features are more realistic/defined </li></ul>
  31. 37. <ul><li>Greek statuaries were predominately free-standing and in-the-round nude males proportioned to indicate ideal physical perfection. </li></ul>Dying Warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, at Aegina, Greece, 500-490 BCE
  32. 38. Aristodikos, 500 BCE
  33. 40. Greek Classical Period <ul><li>500-323 BCE </li></ul>
  34. 41. Greek Classical Style <ul><li>In Western civilization, “Classical” refers to the ancient Greek and Roman styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved from stylized Egyptian-influenced figures to more naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Contrapposto (S-shaped curve/balance of figures) </li></ul><ul><li>Nudes </li></ul><ul><li>Athleticism (Olympics) </li></ul><ul><li>Balance, Ideal forms, the Golden Mean </li></ul>
  35. 42. Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. Moving toward classical style Anatomy is more realistic – hair/posture Contrapposto - Weight on one leg – body responds to gravity movement implied
  36. 43. MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower). Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. Balance (equilibrium) between motion and stability, between emotion and restraint
  37. 45. Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), 450-440 BCE – Roman copy after Greek original
  38. 46. The idealized figure
  39. 49. Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’ 6” high. Archaeological Museum, Reggio Calabria.
  40. 50. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504. Marble, 13’ 5” high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence.
  41. 51. Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, 1460 BCE Nanna Ziggurat, 2100-2050 BCE Parthenon – 447-432 BCE
  42. 52. <ul><li>5 th Century BCE Athens is the center of Greek literature, philosophy, and the arts. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle, Plato, Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic system of government </li></ul>
  43. 54. <ul><li>Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Parthenos (view from the northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated to Athena – whose statue stood at the center </li></ul><ul><li>Parthenon itself was meant as a house for its deity, not as a gathering place for worshippers. </li></ul>
  44. 56. The Lincoln Memorial
  45. 57. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia , built in 470-456 BCE