The Pope who had commissioned the pictorial cycles and the works that had so contributed to the artist's fame, is depicted - according to historical sources, in the master's hand - in a portrait &quot;so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive&quot; (Vasari). The painting shows the Pope seated with the tiara on his head, dressed in a white surplice and a purple mantle. Here the simple but effective tonal contrast, first used in the Portrait of a Cardinal, reappears. The Pope, though old, still seems very vigorous and the Della Rovere energy is clearly visible in the hand that grasps the right arm of the chair with strength and pride. The two acorn-shaped knobs on the back of the chair recall the Pope's coat of arms. The intimacy of the image indicates that Raphael has progressed from the narrative compositions of the Vatican Stanze to the full dominance of individual subjectivity.
Week8 - Renaissance Part 1
Europe and the Byzantine Empire ca. 1000
<ul><li>Renaissance means “Rebirth,” a movement named by artists of the 15th & 16th centuries who conceived of the power of art for society. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a rebirth in education, philosophy, religion, and new art techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>The artist, no longer a tradesman, is considered a “genius” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fine art and craft become two distinct entities. </li></ul></ul>The Renaissance
<ul><li>Rejection of Medieval Artistic Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growing interest in the natural world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artistic interest in illusionism, pictorial solidity, spatial depth, and emotional display in the human figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Art funded by patrons – typically local wealthy merchant families such as the Medici – later the Church </li></ul>Renaissance
Innovations <ul><li>Oil paint </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy, geographic and technical discoveries: new trust in science, reason and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiaroscuro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linear perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric perspective </li></ul></ul>
Humanism and Neo-Platonism <ul><li>Developed from the rediscovery by European scholars of many Latin and Greek texts- the revival of interest in the art and values of the Classical world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavations of Greek and Roman art provided inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It concentrated on the traditional liberal arts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education, idealized beauty, logic, intellect and creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking rational rather than religious answers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neo-Platonism, sought to merge Classical mythology with Christian ideals </li></ul>
Theodora and attendants, mosaic from the south wall of the apse, San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy, ca. 547.
Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
Orcagna, tabernacle, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, begun 1349.Mosaic, gold, marble, lapis lazuli. Bernardo Daddi,Madonna and Child with Saints, painted panel insert, 1346–1347.
CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, ca. 1280–1290. Tempera on wood, 12’ 7” x 7’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. “ Once Cimabue thought to hold the field In painting, and now Giotto has the cry So that the other’s fame, grown dim, must yield.” - Dante Alighieri from The Divine Comedy
Jerry Saltz writes, "Stingel escapes the irony and kitsch of the recent past and gives us an atmospherics of melancholy and love. “
DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA, Betrayal of Jesus, detail from the back of the Maestà altarpiece, from the Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1309–1311. Tempera on wood, detail approx. 1’ 10 1/2” x 3’ 4”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Siena.
Duccio, Christ Entering Jerusalem , detail of Maesta Alter, 1308-11, Tempra on Panel, 40x21”
The frescos in the Arena Chapel at Padua by Giotto ca 1305
GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4”. Giotto = Transition from art of the Middle Ages to Art of the Renaissance
BONAVENTURA BERLINGHIERI, panel from the Saint Francis Altarpiece, San Francesco, Pescia, Italy, 1235. Tempera on wood, approx. 5’ x 3’ x 6”. Giotto, Legend of St Francis: Sermon to the Birds, 1297-99
Italian Renaissance <ul><li>The Early Renaissance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Masaccio, Donatello, Ghiberti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary focus of the painters of the Early Renaissance was the imitation of nature and the creation of a believable 3D illusion on 2D surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The High Renaissance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height of style </li></ul></ul>
Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230. Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230. Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.
DONATELLO, Saint Mark, Or San Michele, Florence, Italy, 1411–1413. Marble, approx. 7’ 9” high. Modern copy in exterior niche. Original sculpture in museum on second floor of Or San Michele. Donatello first created a full-scale nude model in clay, then draped it with clay-soaked linen and arranged the fabric in folds. He is considered one of the first sculptors to use this method.
DONATELLO, David, late 1420s – late 1450s. Bronze, 5’ 2 1/4” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. <ul><li>Religious figure in classical (pagan) style - contrapossto </li></ul><ul><li>Free standing male nude – first since Classical times </li></ul>460 BC - 430 BC
Donatello St Mary Magdalen c. 1457 Wood, height: 188 cm Statue of an old market woman, Early Imperial, Julio-Claudian, 1st century A.D. Roman
LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors (“Gates of Paradise”), baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze relief, approx. 17’ high. Modern copy, ca. 1980. Original panels in Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence.
LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons - east doors, baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze relief, approx. 2’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”.
MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy, ca. 1428. Fresco, 21’ x 10’ 5”. Vaulting mirrors architectural space it is a part of from the viewers point of view The trinity, Mary and St. John flanked by the two donors. Sarcophagus at the bottom reads, “What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become”
Andrea Mantegna The Lamentation over the Dead Christ c. 1490 Tempera on canvas, 68 x 81 cm Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1482. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5’ 8” x 9’ 1”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
Sandro Botticelli shows the Renaissance tendency to mix Greek gods and goddesses with Christian themes. In Neo-Platonic thought, Venus was identified with both Eve and the Virgin Mary. Warhol
The Adoration of the Magi (detail) c. 1475 Tempera on panel Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
The detail shows the assumed self-portrait of the artist.
SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Portrait of a Youth, early 1480s. Tempera on panel, 1’ 4” x 1’. National Gallery of Art, Washington (Andrew W. Mellon Collection).
Giovanni Bellini, St Francis in the Desert, 1485, Oil on Panel
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), approx. 6’ 3” x 3’ 7”. Louvre, Paris.
LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, approx. 4’ 6” x 3’ 3”. National Gallery, London. Leonardo da Vinci was the epitome of a true “Renaissance Man.” He was a master painter, inventor, poet, architect, sculptor, engineer, scientist, and musician.
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (uncleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” x 13’ 9”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
Vitruvian Man 1492 Pen, ink, watercolor and metalpoint on paper, 343 x 245 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice
Anatomical studies of the shoulder 1510-11 Black chalk, pen and ink on paper, 289 x 199 mm Royal Library, Windsor
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris. Sfumato – “smoky” – thin transparent glazes. Leonardo da Vinci described sfumato as "without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane".
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1508–1512. Fresco, approx. 128’ x 45’.
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam (detail), ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1511–1512. Fresco, approx. 9’ 2” x 18’ 8”.
12 th Century Byzantine Mosaic of Last Judgment
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1534–1541. <ul><li>Olympically-proportioned figures </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesized Christian theology and Classical mythology </li></ul><ul><li>Charon in the bottom-right ferries souls across the river Styx to Hades </li></ul>
Michelangelo chose to render Minos as a stinging caricature of his enemy Biagio da Cesena (a Vatican official who declared Last Judgment unfit for sacred walls) complete with donkey ears and a serpent striking his genitalia.
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, drawing of south elevation of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564 (engraving by ÉTIENNE DUPÉRAC, ca. 1569). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Raphael Sanzio (1483-1520) Portrait of Julius II 1511-12 Oil on wood, 108 x 80,7 cm National Gallery, London … a portrait "so animated and true to life that it was frightening to behold, as though it were actually alive" (Vasari).
RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, approx. 19’ x 27’.