Week9 17thand18th C


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17th century, 18th century, art, art appreciation, art history

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  • The Baroque Period lasted from about 1600 to 1750, the period of the Counter Reformation in the Catholic countries of Europe. It is nicknamed the “Age of Colonization,” or “Age of Kings,” as our text refers to it. The Baroque Period goes beyond the Renaissance philosophy of attempting to recreate the stoic, intellectual, classical art of Antiquity, by instilling their art with emotion, dynamic composition, energy, richness and sensual color. The patrons of the arts in the Catholic countries of Europe, i.e. Italy, Spain, Flanders, and France, were primarily the Church and the aristocracy. It is important to make a distinction between Baroque art in the Catholic countries of Europe and the art produced in Holland, a Protestant country. Since the Church and the aristocracy were in complete charge of the social structure and operation of Catholic countries, in a way they worked in collusion to maintain a particular status quo. They determined the character of the art produced under their auspices. Holland, to the contrary, was not beholden to the Pope, the Catholic Church or an aristocratic segment of society, and was mostly middle-class in nature. Finnish artists only had to answer to their personal taste and their pocket books. In Holland, a Protestant country, religious subject matter was not nearly as common as themes taken from everyday life such as landscapes, still-lifes, genre scenes and portraits.
  • Week9 17thand18th C

    1. 1. 17 th Century
    2. 2. <ul><li>Baroque Art: energy, theatrical emotion, rich primary colors, dynamic composition and the strong presence of light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Baroque Period lasted from about 1600 to 1750- the period of the Counter Reformation in the Catholic countries of Europe. It is also called the “Age of Colonization,” or “Age of Kings,” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rococo: pastel colors, lighthearted, secular subjects, art for the aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassical: Italian Renaissance, classical compositions and motifs </li></ul>Chapter Seventeen The 17th and 18th Centuries
    3. 3. Renaissance vs. Baroque <ul><li>Classical simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult iconography </li></ul><ul><li>Sfumato softness of light </li></ul><ul><li>Organization around central axis </li></ul><ul><li>Restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion, Drama, Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Passionate theatricality </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamentation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct iconography </li></ul><ul><li>High contrast – theatrical lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Painterly </li></ul>
    4. 4. Baroque <ul><li>Curvy and diagonally based compositions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the concept of time </li></ul><ul><li>Secularization of subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Art techniques taught formally </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Opera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theatricality of Art </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. CARLO MADERNO, plan of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, with adjoining piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINI.
    6. 6. CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606–1612.
    7. 7. Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy
    8. 8. St. Peter’s Basilica <ul><li>How is this different than Old St. Peter’s? </li></ul><ul><li>For work on St Peter's, Pope Nicholas V bought 2,522 cartloads of stone from the badly damaged Roman Colosseum. Quarrying of stone for the Colosseum had, in turn, been paid for with treasure looted at the Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the temple by the emperor Vespasian's general (and the future emperor) Titus in 70 AD. </li></ul>
    9. 9. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624–1633. Gilded bronze, approx. 100’ high. 100 feet high bronze altar piece Symbols of the patrons (sun and bees) Bronze taken from Roman Pantheon – pagan works transformed into Christian works
    10. 10. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666.
    11. 11. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, 1623. Marble, approx. 5’ 7” high. Galleria Borghese, Rome. Action and energy – much different than the potential action of Michelangelo’s David
    12. 12. Donatello, 1408 Verrocchio, 1470 1501-1504
    13. 13. GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”. <ul><li>Theatrical </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally lit from hidden window above </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture, painting and architecture united </li></ul>
    14. 16. Bernini, Apollo and Daphne
    15. 17. Baroque Architecture <ul><li>long, narrow naves are replaced by broader, occasionally circular forms </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic use of light, either strong light-and-shade contrasts, chiaroscuro effects </li></ul><ul><li>opulent use of ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>large-scale ceiling frescoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently used flying figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly skilled perspective and forshortening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the interior is often no more than a shell for painting and sculpture (especially in the late Baroque) – filled with illusory effects like trompe l'oeil and the blending of painting and architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniting architecture, sculpture, and painting </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1665–1676.
    17. 19. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, plan of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1638–1641.
    18. 20. PIETRO DA CORTONA, Triumph of the Barberini, ceiling fresco in the Gran Salone, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, Italy, 1633–1639.
    19. 21. GIOVANNI BATTISTA GAULLI, Triumph of the Name of Jesus, ceiling fresco with stucco figures in the vault of the Church of Il Gesù, Rome, Italy, 1676–1679.
    20. 22. FRA ANDREA POZZO, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, ceiling fresco in the nave of Sant’Ignazio, Rome, Italy, 1691–1694.
    21. 23. CARAVAGGIO, Entombment, from the chapel of Pietro Vittrice, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Italy, ca. 1603. Oil on canvas, 9’ 10 1/8” x 6’ 7 15/16”. Musei Vaticani, Pinacoteca, Rome. <ul><li>Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><li>Intense light and dark contrasts – as if a spotlight were placed on the figures </li></ul><ul><li>Uses common people for models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-based rather than based on classical sculptures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realistic depictions that don’t idealize </li></ul><ul><li>Invite the viewer into the experience </li></ul><ul><li>His figures are usually few in number, very close to the picture plane, on a stage setting like a theatre, and illuminated by a single light source. </li></ul>
    22. 24. CARAVAGGIO, Calling of Saint Matthew, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Italy, ca. 1597–1601. Oil on canvas, 11’ 1” x 11’ 5”. Influence of Michelangelo
    23. 25. ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614–1620. Oil on canvas, 6’ 6 1/3” x 5’ 4”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
    24. 26. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium, 1610. Oil on panel, 15’ 1 7/8” x 11’ 1 1/2” (center panel), 15' 1 7/8&quot; x 4' 11&quot; (each wing).
    25. 27. PETER PAUL RUBENS, drawing of Laocoön, ca. 1600-1608. Black-and-white chalk drawing with bistre wash, approx. 1’ 7” x 1’ 7”. Ambrosiana, Milan.
    26. 28. PETER PAUL RUBENS, Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles, 1622–1625. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 1” x 3’ 9 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
    27. 29. NICOLAS POUSSIN, Burial of Phocion, 1648. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 11” x 5’ 10”. Louvre, Paris. <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Restrained/classical feel </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque lighting </li></ul>
    28. 30. NICOLAS POUSSIN, Et in Arcadia Ego, ca. 1655. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 10” x 4’. Louvre, Paris.
    29. 31. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid. When asked to explain what he has contributed to Art, Salvador Dali says, “&quot;To art, nothing, absolutely nothing. Because as I've always said I'm a very bad painter. Because I'm too intelligent to be a good painter. To be a good painter you've got to be a bit stupid. With the exception of Velazquez who is a genius...&quot;
    30. 32. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656. Oil on canvas, approx. 10’ 5” x 9’. Museo del Prado, Madrid. The human eye has a limited depth of field – similar to a camera lens. We focus on one level and the objects in the background are often blurred. Here, Velazquez paints everything in the image in focus – expanding the perception of the viewer.
    31. 36. Goya, Francisco, 1778 “After Velazquez Las Meninas” Diego Velázquez “Las Meninas, or the Family of Philip IV”, 1656 oil on canvas
    32. 37. PABLO PICASSO, “Las Meninas” (after Velazquez) Cannes, 17 August 1957 Oil on canvas 194 x 260 cm Diego Velázquez “Las Meninas, or the Family of Philip IV”, 1656 oil on canvas
    33. 38. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, King Philip IV of Spain (Fraga Philip), 1644. Oil on canvas, 4’ 3 1/8” x 3’ 3 1/8”. The Frick Collection, New York. <ul><li>Court painter </li></ul><ul><li>Secular subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More everyday subjects </li></ul></ul>
    35. 40. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632. Oil on canvas, 5’ 3 3/4” x 7’ 1 1/4”. Mauritshuis, The Hague.
    36. 41. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Oil on canvas (cropped from original size), 11’ 11” x 14’ 4”. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
    37. 42. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Return of the Prodigal Son, ca. 1665. Oil on canvas, approx. 8’ 8” x 6’ 9”. Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
    38. 43. The number is still a matter of contention, but it seems he depicted himself in approximately forty to fifty paintings, about thirty-two etchings, and seven drawings. It is an output unique in history.
    39. 44. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, Self-Portrait, ca. 1659–1660. Oil on canvas, approx. 3’ 8 3/4” x 3’ 1”. The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood House, London.
    40. 45. JUDITH LEYSTER, Self-Portrait, ca. 1630. Oil on canvas, 2’ 5 3/8” x 2’ 1 5/8”. National Gallery of Art, Washington
    41. 46. Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance
    42. 50. Vermeer, A Woman Asleep at a Table c. 1657; Oil on canvas, 87.6 x 76.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    43. 51. JACOB VAN RUISDAEL, View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen, ca. 1670. Oil on canvas, approx. 1’ 10” x 2’ 1”.
    44. 52. 18 th Century Rococo and Neo-Classical
    45. 53. Rococo <ul><li>Rococo art is full of fluffy brushwork, fluffy women and fluffy themes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also beautiful, elegant, sensuous and skillfully produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of the dark, rich colors of Baroque art, Rococo favors a pastel palette. </li></ul><ul><li>Extravagant and indulgent </li></ul><ul><li>Ornate </li></ul><ul><li>Playful </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated </li></ul><ul><li>Intricate patterns, taste for Oriental designs </li></ul>
    46. 54. JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 11” x 2’ 8”. The Wallace Collection, London. <ul><li>Bishop swings a woman whose lover hides below </li></ul><ul><li>She kicks her shoe at the little statue of Discretion and toward the lover </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggeratedly delicate femininity – tiny hands and feet and layers of petticoats </li></ul>
    47. 55. GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740.
    48. 56. FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th century.
    49. 57. Egid Quirin Asam, Assumption of the Virgin , 1717-25
    50. 58. HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas, approx. 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris.
    51. 59. Aerial view of palace at Versailles, France, begun 1669
    52. 60. JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), palace of Versailles, Versailles, France, ca. 1680. Versailles is a combination of Italian Renaissance design and Baroque decoration.
    53. 63. French Revolution <ul><li>Monarchy is gone </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal customs are gone </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery is abolished </li></ul><ul><li>France becomes democratic country </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miliatary rule/dictatorship for next 15 years </li></ul></ul>
    54. 64. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805–1808. Oil on canvas, 20’ 4 1/2” x 32’ 1 3/4”. Louvre, Paris.
    55. 66. Characteristics Neo-Classical Style <ul><li>Neo-classical art rebelled against the extravagancies and decadence of the Rococo period. </li></ul><ul><li>The style is often cool, tight and inspired by Antiquity. </li></ul><ul><li>In France it represented and helped foster the French Revolution of 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of classical antiquity </li></ul><ul><li>Re-introduction of classical Greek and Roman forms of art/aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Reason above Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Strong horizontal and vertical structure to compositions </li></ul>
    56. 67. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11’ x 14’. Louvre, Paris.
    57. 68. Jacques Louis David <ul><li>Leads Neoclassical movement as a reaction to the frivolous style of Rococo </li></ul><ul><li>Represented the ideals of the French Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought an art form that was dignified and reflected their concerns/ideals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much more rational compositions than the flowery and decorative ones frequently found in Rococo works </li></ul>
    58. 69. JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 3” x 4’ 1”. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels. <ul><li>Marat was a revolutionary stabbed to death in his bathtub. Also a personal friend of David. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain and outrage of image apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>Directness with detail. The knife and wound, holding the letter that gave entrance to the woman who killed him. </li></ul>
    59. 70. The Laundry Room (Death of Marat)«, 2009 by Richard Jackson.
    60. 71. JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca. 1768–1770. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 1/8” x 2’ 4”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston In America, Neo-classical art pictured the fathers of the American Revolution of 1776. These artists looked back to the logical, ordered compositions, fine brushwork, and “window on the world” techniques of Classical art.