Unit 7 pronouns

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Unit 7 pronouns

  1. 1. Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns are words that replace noun-phrases </li></ul><ul><li>John smiled. </li></ul><ul><li>He smiled. </li></ul><ul><li>The girl smiled. </li></ul><ul><li>4. She smiled. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The nice students smiled. </li></ul><ul><li>6. They smiled. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Pronouns <ul><li>It is often the case that a pronoun MUST replace a noun-phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>1. *The man bought lunch and then the man ate it. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The man bought lunch and then he ate it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The teacher: “*Nadav Sabar is the teacher of LCD 120”. </li></ul><ul><li>4. I am the teacher of LCD 120. </li></ul><ul><li>5. *John told Mary that John likes Mary. </li></ul><ul><li>6. John told Mary that he likes her . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pronouns <ul><li>Below are some common pronouns of English: </li></ul><ul><li>I , us , we , them , they , me , him , she , her , he . </li></ul><ul><li>Divide these pronouns into two groups based on which can appear in each sentence below: </li></ul><ul><li>______ like/likes John. </li></ul><ul><li>John likes ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Give a title to each group of pronouns. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pronouns <ul><li>________ like/s John. </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>You </li></ul><ul><li>He </li></ul><ul><li>She </li></ul><ul><li>It </li></ul><ul><li>We </li></ul><ul><li>They </li></ul>Subject Pronouns
  5. 5. Pronouns <ul><li>John likes _______ </li></ul><ul><li>me </li></ul><ul><li>you </li></ul><ul><li>her </li></ul><ul><li>him </li></ul><ul><li>it </li></ul><ul><li>us </li></ul><ul><li>them </li></ul>Object Pronouns
  6. 6. Subject and Object Pronouns <ul><li>Subject and Object Pronouns are the only words in English that CHANGE depending on whether they are the subject or the object of a sentence: </li></ul>1. Jake likes Mary. 3. Mary likes Jake. 2. He likes her . 4. She likes him . 5. Nadav and the class study linguistics. 7. John saw Nadav and the class. 9. The boys met the girls. 6. We study linguistics. 8. John saw us . 10. They met them .
  7. 7. Subject and Object Pronouns <ul><li>Why is the following sentence starred? </li></ul><ul><li>*Jane walked beside I . </li></ul><ul><li>First note: “I” is NOT the object of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall that prepositions MUST be followed by NPs. </li></ul><ul><li>The NP that follows the preposition is called: “ Object of a Preposition ”. </li></ul><ul><li>A Subject Pronoun CANNOT be the Object of a Preposition! </li></ul><ul><li>2. Jane walked beside me . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subject and Object Pronouns <ul><li>First Person Pronouns refer to the speaker/s : </li></ul><ul><li>I , we , me , us </li></ul><ul><li>Second person pronouns refer to the listener/s : </li></ul><ul><li>You </li></ul><ul><li>Third person pronouns refer to anyone or anything that is NOT part of the conversation : </li></ul><ul><li>He , she , it , they , him , her , them </li></ul>
  9. 9. Object Subject Person Me I 1 st Singular: Us We 1 st Plural: You You 2 nd Singular: You You 2 nd Plural: Him , Her , It He , She , It 3 rd Singular: Them They 3 rd Plural:
  10. 10. Are the following pronouns Subject or Object, singular or plural? <ul><li>we </li></ul><ul><li>them </li></ul><ul><li>her </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>us </li></ul><ul><li>him </li></ul>they me he She You it
  11. 11. Challenge Question <ul><li>What can you learn about Subject and Object Pronouns in the English of Shakespeare, based on the quote below? </li></ul><ul><li>Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. </li></ul><ul><li>- Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2 nd Challenge Question <ul><li>Could an Object Pronoun be the subject of a subordinate clause? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 21 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>1. John saw him in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Who does “him” refer to? </li></ul><ul><li>Who could NOT be the referent of “him”? </li></ul><ul><li>2. John saw himself in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Here, “ himself ” MUST refer to John. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>Reflexive pronouns are used whenever we want to refer to the same person or thing within the same clause . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>1. She is proud of herself . </li></ul><ul><li>2. They talked about themselves . </li></ul><ul><li>3. We saw ourselves in the mirror. </li></ul><ul><li>4. You think so highly of yourself . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>Why do we say that Reflexive Pronouns refer to the same person or thing within the same clause , and NOT within the same sentence ? </li></ul><ul><li>Observe: </li></ul><ul><li>[John thinks] [that he is smart]. </li></ul><ul><li>*[John thinks] [that himself is smart]. </li></ul><ul><li>[Mary ate] [while she was reading]. </li></ul><ul><li>*[Mary ate] [while herself was reading]. </li></ul><ul><li>[Mike slept] and then [ he ate lunch]. </li></ul><ul><li>*[Mike slept] and then [ himself ate lunch]. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>There are 8 Reflexive Pronouns in English: </li></ul><ul><li>Myself , yourself , himself , herself , itself , ourselves , yourselves , themselves . </li></ul><ul><li>Just like Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns (in fact like ALL pronouns ), </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns replace a noun-phrase . </li></ul>
  18. 18. To enhance your understanding <ul><li>Subject and Object Pronouns could be obligatory : </li></ul><ul><li>1. *John ate breakfast and then John left for school. </li></ul><ul><li>2. John ate breakfast and then he left for school. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject and Object Pronouns are sometimes optional : </li></ul><ul><li>3. (pointing at John I say  ) </li></ul><ul><li>He forgot his coat. OR: </li></ul><ul><li>John forgot his coat. </li></ul>
  19. 19. To enhance your understanding <ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns, however, are ALWAYS obligatory : </li></ul><ul><li>1. *John talks to John sometimes. </li></ul><ul><li>2. John talks to himself sometimes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Obligatory” means that if you NEED to use a reflexive, then you MUST use a reflexive. Otherwise it would appear that you are NOT talking about the same person or thing. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Challenge Question <ul><li>Can a reflexive pronoun be the subject of a sentence? If yes , how? If no , why not? </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive pronouns are always the object of a sentence, or the object of a preposition!! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>*Myself ate the cake. </li></ul><ul><li>I ate the cake by myself. </li></ul><ul><li>*Herself likes her. </li></ul><ul><li>She likes herself. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 22 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Find the reflexive pronouns <ul><li>1. They were proud of themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>2. She bought herself an expensive scarf. </li></ul><ul><li>3. We covered ourselves with a warm blanket. </li></ul><ul><li>4. You should be ashamed of yourselves for talking like that! </li></ul><ul><li>5. I wrote myself a note to call my sister later in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The answer revealed itself pretty quickly. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Recall that the demonstratives in English are… </li></ul><ul><li>This, that, these, those </li></ul><ul><li>When demonstratives are followed by a noun, they are… </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners ! </li></ul><ul><li>When they are NOT followed by a noun they are: </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns </li></ul>
  24. 24. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Are the underlined words determiners or pronouns ? </li></ul><ul><li>That looks tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>That pizza looks tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>These shoes don’t fit. </li></ul><ul><li>These are perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>I like those hats. </li></ul><ul><li>I want to try those . </li></ul><ul><li>She tried this cake. </li></ul><ul><li>You must see this . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Pronouns replace NPs . Observe that demonstrative pronouns indeed replace NPs : </li></ul><ul><li>1. She wants to eat that cake . </li></ul><ul><li>2. She wants to eat that . </li></ul><ul><li>3. He picked out these shoes . </li></ul><ul><li>4. He picked out these . </li></ul><ul><li>Note : </li></ul><ul><li>ALL demonstratives point at something ! </li></ul>
  26. 26. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 23 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Are the underlined words demonstrative pronouns or determiners? <ul><li>1. These are not for sale. </li></ul><ul><li>2. This information is confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do those keys on the table belong to you? </li></ul><ul><li>4. I never thought your cousin would buy that house. </li></ul><ul><li>5. That is the funniest thing I’ve ever heard! </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>6. These earrings are not for sale, but would you like to look at those ? </li></ul><ul><li>7. That shop on the corner is going out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>8. I don’t care for those misleading ads. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Do you want this one or that ? </li></ul><ul><li>10. Elaine is one of those people who can learn languages easily. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Possessive Pronouns <ul><li>Recall that the possessives in English are… </li></ul><ul><li>His, her, my, your, its, our, their </li></ul><ul><li>When possessives are followed by a noun , they are… </li></ul><ul><li>Determiners ! </li></ul><ul><li>When they are NOT followed by a noun they are: </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>(Also known as: Nominal possessives ) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Possessive Pronouns <ul><li>Actually, only two of the possessives have the same exact form whether they are pronouns or determiners: </li></ul><ul><li>His, its </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the possessive pronouns look slightly different from the determiners- </li></ul><ul><li>These are ALL the possessive pronouns : </li></ul><ul><li>Mine , yours , his , hers , its , ours , theirs </li></ul>
  31. 31. Possessive Pronouns <ul><li>Are the underlined words determiners or pronouns ? </li></ul><ul><li>They didn’t laugh at my joke but they did laugh at his . </li></ul><ul><li>His homework was better than mine . </li></ul><ul><li>Her shoes don’t fit. </li></ul><ul><li>Yours are perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>Can she have some of his for lunch? </li></ul><ul><li>I want to try his . </li></ul><ul><li>She tried their cake. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Possessive Pronouns <ul><li>Recall that pronouns replace NPs . Observe that Possessive pronouns indeed replace NPs : </li></ul><ul><li>1. She wants to wear his coat . </li></ul><ul><li>2. She wants to wear his . </li></ul><ul><li>3. Who picked out your shoes ? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Who picked out yours ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 24 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Identify all the pronouns. Say what kind of pronoun it is! <ul><li>1. My daughter is older than yours. </li></ul><ul><li>2. That grocery store across the street used to be mine. </li></ul><ul><li>3. His story holds up better than hers. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Thank you for inviting us over for dinner – the pleasure was ours. </li></ul><ul><li>5. We can’t buy that car – its trunk is too small. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>6. The error was entirely his. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Theirs is the best idea I’ve heard so far. </li></ul><ul><li>8. This is a wonderful book – it’s a shame that its author is not well known. </li></ul><ul><li>9. This is your business, not mine. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Her education will prepare her for a good job. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Tests of Distribution <ul><li>They enjoyed themselves at her house. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoyed themselves at _______ house. </li></ul>this that one *him *me *them This slot is appropriate for Determiners!! This slot is NOT appropriate for Pronouns!!
  37. 37. Tests of Distribution <ul><li>Despite his old age, he is very nice. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite ______ old age, he is very nice. </li></ul>the that some *you *us *them This slot is appropriate for Determiners!! This slot is NOT appropriate for Pronouns!!
  38. 38. Tests of Distribution <ul><li>She convinced her husband to accept the job. </li></ul><ul><li>She convinced _______ husband to accept the job. </li></ul>some that this *it *me *him This slot is appropriate for Determiners!! This slot is NOT appropriate for Pronouns!!
  39. 39. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>Interrogative Pronouns are simply- Question words. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 9 interrogative pronouns : </li></ul><ul><li>How , what , when , where , </li></ul><ul><li>which , who , whom , whose , why </li></ul><ul><li>When these words are used to actually ask question, they are Interrogative Pronouns </li></ul>
  40. 40. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>We’ve already seen question words function as… </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>But as subordinating conjunctions no questions were ever involved! </li></ul><ul><li>When these words are used to actually ask questions , they are interrogative pronouns ! </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Observe that interrogative pronouns indeed replace NPs : </li></ul><ul><li>1. The tall man came to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Who came to the party? </li></ul><ul><li>In sentence (2) the word “ who ” stands in place of a NP . </li></ul><ul><li>3. You ate the tasty soup . </li></ul><ul><li>4. What did you eat? </li></ul><ul><li>In sentence (4) the word “ what ” stands in place of a NP . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>However , not all Interrogative Pronouns replace NPs . </li></ul><ul><li>The following Interrogative Pronouns typically do replace NPs: </li></ul><ul><li>What , Who , Whom , ( Which ). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>John ate a banana .  What did John eat? </li></ul><ul><li>John saw Fred .  Who did John see? </li></ul><ul><li>John met with Fred .  With whom did John meet? </li></ul><ul><li>John wants that one .  Which does John want? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>The following Interrogative Pronouns typically replace PPs: </li></ul><ul><li>Where , When , ( Why ) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>John went to school .  Where did John go? </li></ul><ul><li>John ate at 12 .  When did John eat? </li></ul><ul><li>John stayed home because of the rain .  </li></ul><ul><li>Why did John stay home? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>The following Interrogative Pronoun typically replaces Adjective - Phrases: </li></ul><ul><li> How </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>The movie was good .  How was the movie. </li></ul><ul><li>She feels excellent .  How does she feel? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>The following Interrogative Pronouns typically replace a determiner: </li></ul><ul><li>( Which ), ( Whose ) </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>John likes this car.  Which car does John like? </li></ul><ul><li>John went to Mary’s party.  </li></ul><ul><li>Whose party did John go to? </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between “whose” and “who’s”!! </li></ul>
  46. 46. Interrogative Pronouns <ul><li>To conclude, it doesn’t really matter what part of speech the interrogative pronoun replaces. You just need to recognize that it replaces something . </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that question words are NOT always interrogative pronouns. If they relate two sentences then they are either Subordinating Conjunctions , OR… </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Pronouns , to which we move next. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 25 </li></ul>
  48. 48. Identify all the pronouns. Say what kind of pronoun it is! <ul><li>1. Whose answer is more plausible: his or mine? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why are you working so late? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Which do you like better? </li></ul><ul><li>4. At whose house will the party be held? </li></ul><ul><li>5. To whom do I have the pleasure of speaking? </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>6. How did she arrive at that conclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>7. When will we take our lunch break? </li></ul><ul><li>8. What is it about this candidate that you don’t like? </li></ul><ul><li>9. Where did your sister meet her? </li></ul><ul><li>10. Who is going to clean up your mess? </li></ul><ul><li>11. We came across a friend of ours at the mall yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>12. I can't find my pencil. Can I use yours? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Subjects and Predicates- Review It is easy to identify the predicate of a sentence: Simply look for the verb! Every sentence of English has a verb. The subject of the sentence answers the questions: Who or What predicate ?
  51. 51. Note : Direct objects also answer the questions: Who or What . However , direct objects appear AFTER the verb, while subjects appear BEFORE the verb. Example: 1. John sold his car.  To find the object we ask : What did John sell?  To find the subject we ask : Who sold his car?
  52. 52. Subjects and Predicates <ul><li>1. John ate. </li></ul><ul><li> What’s the verb? </li></ul><ul><li> So, what is the predicate ? </li></ul><ul><li> Who ate? </li></ul><ul><li> So, what is the subject ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. The tall man slept all night. </li></ul><ul><li> What’s the predicate ? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the subject ? </li></ul><ul><li>3. The winds blew strong. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The chair broke yesterday. </li></ul>Eat. Ate . John. John . Slept . The tall man .
  53. 53. Every clause has a subject and a predicate!! <ul><li>[I think] [that Frank is a good man] [but he isn’t right for the job]. </li></ul><ul><li>[While they were eating], [darkness descended over the campsite]. </li></ul><ul><li>After she finished working she was late for our meeting, but I wasn’t upset. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Susan doesn’t live in the U.S., her English is excellent. </li></ul><ul><li>They acted as if nothing happened, and that was quite insensitive of them. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Identify all the pronouns, the clauses, the subjects and predicates <ul><li>1. She thought that the assignment was a great opportunity for her. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Although She doesn’t live in the U.S., her English is excellent, but his is quite poor. </li></ul><ul><li>3. While she was waiting she was reading a book, so she didn’t notice when I arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Why did you think that they were home? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How can you live with yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>6. That book isn’t yours. You know it’s mine. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>John knows the guy who is teaching this class. </li></ul><ul><li> The pronoun “ who ” replaces the NP “ the guy ”. </li></ul><ul><li> Relative pronouns start clauses that describe a NP . </li></ul><ul><li> This clause is called a Relative Clause ! </li></ul><ul><li> So, Relative clauses describe NPs </li></ul>
  56. 56. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>“ the girl who lives around the corner” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relative clause here? </li></ul><ul><li>“ who lives around the corner” </li></ul><ul><li> You know this is a clause because there’s a verb !!! </li></ul><ul><li>What NP is “who” replacing? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The girl” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the predicate of the relative cluase? </li></ul><ul><li>“ lives around the corner” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Who” </li></ul>
  57. 57. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Jane is looking for the man who just left. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“who just left” </li></ul><ul><li> You know this is a clause because there’s a verb !!! </li></ul><ul><li>What NP is “who” replacing? </li></ul><ul><li>“The man” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the predicate of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“left” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“Who” </li></ul>
  58. 58. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>I just read the book which you recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“which you recommended” </li></ul><ul><li>What NP is “which” replacing? </li></ul><ul><li>“the book” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“you” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the predicate of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“recommended” </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the WHOLE predicate? Recommended what ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ which” </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: The relative pronoun isn’t always the subject of the relative clause! </li></ul>
  59. 59. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Relative pronouns are always the first word of a relative clause . </li></ul><ul><li>The relative pronoun always replaces a NP. </li></ul><ul><li>Most question words can be relative pronouns . </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses describe a NP! </li></ul><ul><li>More examples : </li></ul><ul><li>1. John met the woman who lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Clause : John met the woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause : who lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>What NP does “who” replace? </li></ul><ul><li>who = the woman . </li></ul>
  60. 60. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>John saw the movie that Jane talked about. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ that Jane talked about” </li></ul><ul><li>What NP is “that” replacing? </li></ul><ul><li>“ the movie” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jane” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the predicate of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ talked about” </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the whole predicate? talked about what ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ that” </li></ul><ul><li> The word “that” can be a relative pronoun . </li></ul>
  61. 61. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Bill bought the cake that Sue asked for. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ that Sue asked for” </li></ul><ul><li>What NP is “that” replacing? </li></ul><ul><li>“ the cake” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subject of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sue” </li></ul><ul><li>What is the predicate of the relative clause? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Asked for” </li></ul><ul><li>Is this the whole predicate? Asked for what ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ that” </li></ul>
  62. 62. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>2. She bought the pizza that had olives on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Clause : </li></ul><ul><li>She bought the pizza. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause : </li></ul><ul><li>that had olives on it. </li></ul><ul><li>that = the pizza. </li></ul><ul><li>3. He saw the movie which came out yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Clause : He saw the movie. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause : which came out yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>which = the movie. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>In the following sentence say what NP the relative pronoun replaces : </li></ul><ul><li>1. He saw the show that everyone talked about. </li></ul><ul><li>2. She knows the place where we met. </li></ul><ul><li>3. They sold the house which had a backyard. </li></ul><ul><li>4. John talked to the woman who lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Jane met the guy whose car this is. </li></ul><ul><li>6. He likes the girl whom he fought with. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Relative Pronouns – Conclusion : </li></ul><ul><li>When a question word/the word “that” starts a clause that describes a NP, then the question word/the word “that” is a: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Pronoun </li></ul>What is the relative pronoun in the sentence above?
  65. 65. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Relative clauses may interrupt a main clause in the middle: </li></ul><ul><li>1. John thinks that the boy who lives here is nice . </li></ul><ul><li>Main Clause : John think the boy is nice. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause : who lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>who = the boy </li></ul><ul><li>2. He believes the man who is sitting there is innocent . </li></ul><ul><li>Main Clause : He believes the man is innocent. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Clause : who is sitting there. </li></ul><ul><li>who = the man </li></ul>
  66. 66. Relative Pronouns <ul><li>Challenge question : </li></ul><ul><li>Make up sentences with the words “ why ”, “ when ”, “ where ” and “ whose ” as relative pronouns. </li></ul>
  67. 67. (1) Identify the Relative Pronoun, (2) say what NP it replaces, and (3) Identify the main and the relative clauses: <ul><li>1. I talked to the girl whose car had broken down in front of the shop. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mr Richards, who is a taxi driver, lives here. </li></ul><ul><li>3. We often visit our aunt in Norwich, which is in Eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>4. This is the girl who came from Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Peter is the boy who has just arrived to school. </li></ul><ul><li>6. What did you do with the money which she lent you? </li></ul>
  68. 68. Relative Pronouns vs. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>What is the difference between subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns? </li></ul><ul><li>1. Subordinating conjunctions don’t replace </li></ul><ul><li>NPs. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative pronouns do replace a NP. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Subordinate clauses don’t describe a NP. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative clauses do describe a NP. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Relative Pronouns vs. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>1. John thought that the meal was tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause I : John thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause II : that the meal was tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>that = ? </li></ul><ul><li>Result : “that” in (1) is NOT a relative pronoun . It is a subordinating conjunction . </li></ul>
  70. 70. Relative Pronouns vs. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>2. John wants to know who came to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause I : John wants to know. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause II : who came to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>who = ? </li></ul><ul><li>Result : “who” in (2) is a subordinating conjunction! </li></ul><ul><li>3. John knows the people who came to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause I : John knows the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause II : who came to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>who = the people </li></ul><ul><li>Result : “who” in (3) is a relative pronoun . </li></ul>
  71. 71. The word “that” <ul><li>We’ve seen the word “that” functioning as four different parts of speech : </li></ul><ul><li>I. Demonstrative Determiner  </li></ul><ul><li>I like that car. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Demonstrative Pronoun  </li></ul><ul><li>I like that . </li></ul><ul><li>III. Subordinating Conjunction  </li></ul><ul><li>She thinks that apples are tasty. </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Relative Pronoun  </li></ul><ul><li>I like the book that you read. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Step-by-step procedure for identifying the word “that” <ul><li>I. If “that” is used to point , it is a demonstrative. </li></ul><ul><li> If it is followed by a noun , it’s a Determiner . </li></ul><ul><li> If it is NOT followed by a noun , it’s a Pronoun . </li></ul><ul><li>II. If “that” is NOT pointing, it’s relating two clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>If it replaces a NP, it is a Relative Pronoun - the Relative Clause is describing the NP. </li></ul><ul><li>If it does NOT replace a NP, it is a Subordinating Conjunction . </li></ul>
  73. 73. The word “that” – Distribution tests I read that book. your *it Result : Determiner! I read that . *your it Result : Dem. Pronoun! I saw the kid that cried. who *while Result : Relative Pronoun! I saw that you cried. *who while ate Result : Conjunction!
  74. 74. Step-by-step procedure for identifying Question Words <ul><li>I. If a question word is used to actually ask a question , it is an interrogative pronoun . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : What did you eat? </li></ul><ul><li>II. If it is NOT used to ask a question, it is relating two clauses . </li></ul><ul><li>If it replaces a NP, it is a Relative Pronoun - the Relative Clause is describing the NP. </li></ul><ul><li>Example : I know the boy [ who lives here]. </li></ul><ul><li>If it does NOT replace a NP from the main clause, it is a Subordinating Conjunction . </li></ul><ul><li>Example : I don’t know [ when the movie starts]. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Homework <ul><li>Read and do all the exercises of lesson 26 </li></ul>
  76. 76. Possessives : Pronouns vs. Determiners <ul><li>Determiners </li></ul><ul><li>my </li></ul><ul><li>your </li></ul><ul><li>his </li></ul><ul><li>her </li></ul><ul><li>its </li></ul><ul><li>our </li></ul><ul><li>their </li></ul>Pronouns mine yours his hers its ours theirs Determiners are always followed a noun : Her laptop Your pizza * Hers laptop * Yours pizza
  77. 77. What part of speech are the underlined words? <ul><li>Our car has been working well. </li></ul><ul><li>Your parents threw you a surprise party. </li></ul><ul><li>If only he did this for me I would be his forever. </li></ul><ul><li>They pride themselves on their accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ours is the best car here. </li></ul><ul><li>He got his portion and she got hers . </li></ul><ul><li>My name is mine . </li></ul>
  78. 78. Identify all the pronouns. Say what kind of pronoun it is! <ul><li>1. The directors whose movies I enjoy the most, tend to be from Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>2. You can give him the answer that he is waiting for, so why won’t you? </li></ul><ul><li>3. The picture which hangs in our dining room is too big for us, but that’s o.k. by me. </li></ul><ul><li>4. She is greeting the guests who arrived at her dinner party, and that’s very nice of her. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The kitten that was born a few days ago is his. She’s asleep under her blanket. </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>6. I couldn’t understand the document that I had written myself. </li></ul><ul><li>7. You should seek advice from your friend whom you trust the most with this. </li></ul><ul><li>8. We usually watch TV in the room which is in the back of our house. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The gas station attendant who gave us directions to that park was courteous. </li></ul><ul><li>10. We are playing tennis with the woman who won that yesterday. </li></ul>

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