Pronouns

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Pronouns, Presented by :Taghreed Basabrain.
Course Title Grammar (2)
Course Code& Number Eng 142
Credit hours 2X2= 4 hrs
Pre-requisite Eng 141
Instructor Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Pronouns

  1. 1. Us<br />We<br />We<br />PRONOUNS<br />She<br />I<br />He<br />
  2. 2. Definition"Pronoun" is the sentence element used to replace a noun, or a noun equivalent construction. The replaced noun is named the "antecedent".<br />
  3. 3. CATEGORIES OF PRONOUNS<br />
  4. 4. Syntactically, pronouns have the same functions as nouns do; morphologically, pronouns are used to avoid repetition, and to set/clarify nouns' categories of number, person, and gender. <br />
  5. 5. There are eight categories of pronouns, The <br />categories of pronouns are:<br />1. Personal Pronouns.<br />2. Possessive Pronouns .3. Demonstrative Pronouns. 4. Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns. 5. Interrogative Pronouns.6. Relative Pronouns.7. Reciprocal Pronouns.8. Indefinite Pronouns.<br />
  6. 6. PERSONAL PRONOUN <br />
  7. 7. Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:<br />number: singular (I) or plural ( we). <br />person: 1st person (I), 2nd person (you) or 3rd person(he). <br />gender: male (he), female (she) or neuter (it). <br />case: subject (we) or object (us).<br />We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about.<br />
  8. 8. Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentences:<br />Examples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second an object pronoun):<br />
  9. 9. - Ilike coffee. <br />- John helped me.<br />- Do you like coffee? <br />- John loves you.<br />- He runs fast. <br />- Did Ram beat him?<br />-She is clever. <br />- Does Mary know her?<br />- Wewent home. <br />-Anthony drove us.<br />-It doesn't work. <br />-Can the engineer repair it?<br />-Do you need a table for three? <br />-Did John and Mary beat youat doubles?<br />-They played doubles. <br />-John and Mary beat them<br />
  10. 10. We often use it to introduce a remark:<br />-It is nice to have a holiday sometimes. <br />-It is important to dress well. <br />.<br />We also often useitto talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:<br />-It's raining. <br />-It will probably be hot tomorrow. <br />-Is it nine o'clock yet? <br />-It's 50 kilometers from here to Cambridge. <br />
  11. 11. Possessive <br />Pronouns<br />
  12. 12. - We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the "antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).<br />-You will never find a possessive pronoun near a noun, despite the fact it is the genitive of personal pronoun<br />-We use possessive pronouns depending on:<br />-number: singular (mine) or plural (ours) <br />-person: 1st person (mine), 2nd person (yours) or 3rd person (his) <br />-gender: male (his), female (hers) .<br />
  13. 13. Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some example sentences. Each possessive pronoun can:<br />- be subject or object. <br />-refer to a singular or plural antecedent.<br />
  14. 14. Examples:<br />-Look at these pictures. Mineis the big one. (subject = My picture) <br />-I like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my flowers)<br />-All the essays were good but his was the best. (subject = his essay) <br />-John found his passport but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her passport)<br />
  15. 15. Plural<br />Singular<br />our<br />your<br />their<br />my<br />your<br />his, her, its<br />Used before nouns<br />ours<br />yours<br />theirs<br />mine<br />yours<br />his, hers, its<br />Used<br />alone<br />
  16. 16. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUN<br />
  17. 17. Definitions<br />-Reflexive pronounis used with an active voice verb in order to reflect the action of the verb back on the subject--the antecedent.-Emphatic pronounaccompanies its antecedent in order to accentuate its action/state.-Reflexiveand emphatic pronounstake different positions within the sentence structure. <br />
  18. 18. ** We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural). <br />There are eight reflexive pronouns: <br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. -I made it myself. OR I myselfmade it. <br />-Have you yourself seen it? OR Have you seen it yourself? <br />-She spoke to me herself. OR She herself spoke to me. <br />
  21. 21. DEMONSTRATIVE<br /> PRONOUN<br />
  22. 22. Demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectiveshave exactly the same forms. The way to differentiate them depends on their position relative to the antecedent/determined nouns.<br />
  23. 23. A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things:<br />*near in distance or time (this, these) <br />*far in distance or time (that, those)<br />*This tastes good. <br />*These are bad times. <br />*Thatis beautiful. <br />*Those were the days! <br />
  24. 24. ATTENTIONThe word "that" has four mainfunctions:1. demonstrative pronoun or adjective:Thatbook is good.2. relative pronoun:Anything thatyou remember could help a lot.3. conjunction:He said thathe had been there before.4. adverb:The snow wasthathigh.<br />
  25. 25. -Do not confuse demonstrative pronouns with demonstrative adjectives. They are identical, but a demonstrative pronoun stands alone, <br />while a demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun.<br />-That smells. (demonstrative pronoun) <br />-That bookis good. (demonstrative adjective + noun)<br />Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can use them for people when the person is identified. Look at these examples: <br />-This is Josef speaking. Is that Mary? <br />-Thatsounds like John<br />
  26. 26. INTERROGATIVE <br />PRONOUN<br />
  27. 27. We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The interrogative pronoun represents the thing that we don't know (what we are asking the question about). <br />There are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which.<br />-The possessive pronoun whose can also be an interrogative pronoun (an interrogative possessive pronoun).<br />
  28. 28. Examples:<br />
  29. 29. Relative <br />Pronouns<br />
  30. 30. - A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative" pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies.<br />There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that.<br />Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession. Which is for things. That can be used for people, and things and as subject and object in defining relative clauses.<br />Relative pronouns can refer to singular or plural, and there is no difference between male and female. <br />
  31. 31. Examples:<br />- The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.<br />- The car which hit me was yellow.<br />- The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher.<br />- The car, whose driver jumped out just before the accident, was completely destroyed<br />
  32. 32. Reciprocal <br />Pronouns<br />
  33. 33. - We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way towards the other.<br />There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are both two words:<br />- each other<br />- one another <br />
  34. 34. - When we use these reciprocal pronouns:<br />there must be two or more people, things or groups involved (so we cannot use reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it), and <br />they must be doing the same thing<br />Examples:<br />- John and Mary love each other. <br />- The ten prisoners were all blaming one another. <br />- Why don't you believe each other?<br />
  35. 35. INDEFINITE <br />PRONOUN<br />
  36. 36. An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and "not definite". Some typical indefinite pronouns are:<br />
  37. 37. Some Indefinite Pronouns<br />All, any, most, none and some can be singular or plural, depending on the phrase that follows them.<br />
  38. 38. Note that many indefinite pronouns also function as other parts of speech. Look at "another" in the following sentences:<br />- He has one job in the day and another at night. (pronoun) <br />- I'd like another drink, please. (adjective)<br />
  39. 39. Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular in one context and plural in another.<br />Notice that : A singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also agree (in number and gender).<br />- Allis forgiven.-Allhave arrived.<br />- We can start the meeting because everybody has arrived.<br />- John likes coffee but not tea. I think both are good.<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. References: <br />1- www.englishclub.com .<br />2- www.corollarytheorems.com. <br />Taghreed Ahmed Basabrain<br />3091116<br />

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