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PRONOUNS
<ul><li>What is a pronoun? </li></ul><ul><li>Every name is called a  noun:  as “field” and “fountain”, “street” and “town”...
<ul><li>Pronouns vs. adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to identify a pronoun from an adjective.  A pronoun subs...
<ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A demonstrative pronoun  points to and identifies  a noun or a pronoun an...
<ul><li>Interrogative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An interrogative pronoun  is used to ask questions .  </li></ul><ul><li>W...
<ul><li>Relative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A relative pronoun  is used to link one phrase or clause to  another phrase or...
<ul><li>Indefinite Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun  referring to an identifiable but not spe...
<ul><li>Indefinite Pronouns  ( cont .) </li></ul><ul><li>Many  were invited to the lunch but only  one  showed up. </li></...
<ul><li>Reciprocal Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>They are only two pronouns:  each other and one another. They are used to co...
<ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of the clause or sen...
<ul><li>Intensive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An  intensive pronoun  is a pronoun used to emphasize its antecedent.  Intens...
<ul><li>Personal Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns are those used more frequently.  They are used to refer back...
<ul><li>Personal Pronouns </li></ul>Subjective Nominative Subject Objective Accusative Object Possessive Genitive Reflexiv...
<ul><li>The Pronoun One </li></ul><ul><li>The Pronoun One has three different functions: </li></ul><ul><li>a)  Numeral one...
<ul><li>Anticipatory Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>The pronouns  it  and  there  function as anticipatory pronouns.  They are...
<ul><li>Grammatical Categories of Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns have the grammatical categories of Number, Gender and C...
<ul><li>The category of gender </li></ul><ul><li>Which pronouns show gender?  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns -  he, s...
<ul><li>The grammatical category of number </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstratives  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal  </li></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>The grammatical category of case  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal  </li></ul><ul><li>He  is fond of all the  neighbors ...
<ul><li>AGREEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Every pronoun must agree with its antecedent (the noun to which the pronoun refers or ...
<ul><li>AGREEMENT IN NUMBER AND GENDER </li></ul><ul><li>A pronoun must match its antecedent in number and gender. In othe...
<ul><li>ANTECEDENTS WITH CONJUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>When singular antecedents are joined by  and , use a plural pronou...
<ul><li>PRONOUNS AS ANTECEDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most common mistakes in pronoun-antecedent agreement occurs w...
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Pronouns[1]

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Pronouns[1]

  1. 1. PRONOUNS
  2. 2. <ul><li>What is a pronoun? </li></ul><ul><li>Every name is called a noun: as “field” and “fountain”, “street” and “town”, </li></ul><ul><li>in place of noun the pronoun stands, as “he” and “she” can clap their hands. </li></ul><ul><li>A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>A pronoun is used to make sentences less repetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>It is usually defined as a word that stands for a noun or a noun phrase or something related to one. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Pronouns vs. adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to identify a pronoun from an adjective. A pronoun substitutes, an adjective modifies. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the book he gave me last week. Whatever means you use will be appreciated. </li></ul><ul><li>Which car do you prefer? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun and relates it to space and time. </li></ul><ul><li>This, that, these, those, the others </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;This&quot; and &quot;these&quot; refer to things that are nearby </li></ul><ul><li>either in space or in time, while &quot;that&quot; and &quot;those&quot; refer to things that are farther away in space or time. </li></ul><ul><li>This has to stop.. </li></ul><ul><li>This is puny; that is the tree I want. </li></ul><ul><li>Three customers wanted these . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Interrogative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions . </li></ul><ul><li>Who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever, when, where, why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who wrote the novel Rockbound? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom do you think we should invite? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To whom do you wish to speak? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What did she say? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which did you bring? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whoever said that? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Relative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Who, whom, that, which, whoever, whomever, whichever </li></ul><ul><li>You may invite whomever you like to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. </li></ul><ul><li>In a time of crisis, the manager asks the workers whom she believes to be the most efficient to arrive an hour earlier than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever broke the window will have to replace it. </li></ul><ul><li>The crate which was left in the corridor has now been moved into the storage closet. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Indefinite Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing . </li></ul><ul><li>any, anybody, anyone, anything, </li></ul><ul><li>everybody, everyone, everything, </li></ul><ul><li>some, somebody, someone, something, </li></ul><ul><li>none, nobody, no one, nothing, </li></ul><ul><li>all, another both, each, few, many, several , </li></ul><ul><li>One, you, he </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Indefinite Pronouns ( cont .) </li></ul><ul><li>Many were invited to the lunch but only one showed up. </li></ul><ul><li>The office had been searched and everything was thrown onto the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>We donated everything we found in the attic to the woman's shelter garage sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Although they looked everywhere for extra copies of the magazine, they found none . </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws. </li></ul><ul><li>Give a registration package to each . </li></ul><ul><li>If at first you don’t succeed, try and try again / a grin. </li></ul><ul><li>He who laughs, lasts </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Some grammarians subdivide some indefinite pronouns into Distributive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>All, both, neither, either each. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Reciprocal Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>They are only two pronouns: each other and one another. They are used to convey a two-way relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>They accused each other of the betrayal. (two) </li></ul><ul><li>The Browns and the Smiths are always fighting one another (more than two) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>A reflexive pronoun is used to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. </li></ul><ul><li>After the party, I asked mysel f why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself . </li></ul><ul><li>Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Intensive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasize its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>I myself believe that aliens should abduct my sister. </li></ul><ul><li>The Prime Minister himself said that he would lower taxes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Personal Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns are those used more frequently. They are used to refer back to something or someone that has already been mentioned. They are also used to refer to people and things directly. They are called personal because they refer to the people or things involved in the text. They indicate persons. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Personal Pronouns </li></ul>Subjective Nominative Subject Objective Accusative Object Possessive Genitive Reflexive Emphasizing Intensive I me mine myself you you yours yourself he she it him her It his hers its himself herself itself we us our ourselves you you yours yourselves they them theirs themselves
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Pronoun One </li></ul><ul><li>The Pronoun One has three different functions: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Numeral one. Represents a number. The plural is 2,3… </li></ul><ul><li>Of all the persons present I only spoke to one . </li></ul><ul><li>b) Replacive one. The plural is ones </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a doctor in the house? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yes there’s one behind me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I want the ones on the table. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>c) Indefinite one . It indicates any person. It is invariable. It does not have a plural form </li></ul><ul><ul><li> One is always making New Years Resolutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> One can’t always have what you want. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Anticipatory Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>The pronouns it and there function as anticipatory pronouns. They are placed at the beginning of a sentence as grammatical subjects and serve to allow the subject of the sentence to be placed in a different position. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary that he comes on time. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two books on the table. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Grammatical Categories of Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns have the grammatical categories of Number, Gender and Case. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronouns have the same grammatical categories, plus the category of person: </li></ul><ul><li>The category of person - Personal and reflexive pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>1 st person - The person who speaks: I, we, me us, ours, myself, ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd person - The person spoken to: you, yours, yourself, yourselves </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd person – The person spoken about: he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, hers, its, theirs, himself, herself, itself, themselves </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The category of gender </li></ul><ul><li>Which pronouns show gender? </li></ul><ul><li>Personal pronouns - he, she it </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive - herself, himself, itself </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative – who, what (personal or non personal) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative who, what (personal or non personal) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The grammatical category of number </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstratives </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The grammatical category of case </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>He is fond of all the neighbors who call him Pete </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative </li></ul><ul><li>Who wrote the novel Rockbound? Whom do you think we should invite? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Relative </li></ul><ul><li>You may invite whomever you like to the party. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>AGREEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Every pronoun must agree with its antecedent (the noun to which the pronoun refers or which it replaces). </li></ul><ul><li>A pronoun agrees with its antecedent when they match each other in both number and gender. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>AGREEMENT IN NUMBER AND GENDER </li></ul><ul><li>A pronoun must match its antecedent in number and gender. In other words, if the antecedent is plural, the pronoun must be plural, and if the antecedent is singular, the pronoun must be singular. Also, if the antecedent is masculine, the pronoun must be so. </li></ul><ul><li>Freddy lost his books yesterday. I saw them in the classroom. I know they are his . </li></ul><ul><li>Freddy’s parents believe that a son of theirs should be slightly peculiar. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>ANTECEDENTS WITH CONJUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>When singular antecedents are joined by and , use a plural pronoun to refer to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim and Sally are proud of Peter . A new son of theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>When antecedents are joined by or or nor , the pronoun referring to them should match the part of the antecedent that is closest to the pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither her sisters nor Jeannie will bring her basketball. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither Jeannie nor her sisters will bring their basketballs. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>PRONOUNS AS ANTECEDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most common mistakes in pronoun-antecedent agreement occurs when the antecedent of a pronoun is, itself, a pronoun. In such cases, the two pronouns must agree with each other in both number and gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Those boxes have unbroken lids, but these need to have their lids replaced. </li></ul><ul><li>When the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun . </li></ul><ul><li>The following indefinite pronouns are always singular. Consequently, pronouns or determiners that refer to them will always be singular as well: </li></ul><ul><li>anybody, somebody, everybody, nobody </li></ul><ul><li>anyone, someone, everyone, no one </li></ul><ul><li>either, neither,each, one </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody needs to bring his or her assignment to class. </li></ul>

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