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04 types of chemical reactions

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  • 1. Types of Chemical Reactions
  • 2. Synthesis Reaction A B+ A BA A + B  AB
  • 3. Synthesis Reaction A B+ A BA A reaction where two reactants combine to make a larger, more complex product
  • 4. Synthesis Reaction HCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
  • 5. Decomposition Reaction A B+A BA AB  A + B
  • 6. A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products Decomposition Reaction A B+A BA
  • 7. 2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energy Decomposition Reaction Timothy McVeigh bombing, 1995 Regular building demolition with ammonium nitrate explosives
  • 8. 2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) Decomposition Reaction
  • 9. Single Displacement Reaction A + BC  AC + B A + B CB + BA CA
  • 10. Single Displacement Reaction A + B CB + BA CA A reaction where an element displaces another element in a compound, producing a new compound and a new element
  • 11. Single Displacement Reaction Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
  • 12. Single Displacement Reaction 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
  • 13. Single Displacement Reaction Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Will this reaction occur? The second reaction does not occur. How will you know if a single displacement reaction will occur or not? H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)  2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) What about this reaction?
  • 14. The activity series (also on page 130, Table 4.2) The “Who’s Hot and Who’s Not Analogy” Single Displacement Reaction
  • 15. Single Displacement Reaction MgSO4 + Zn  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur
  • 16. REACTIVENESS Single Displacement Reaction I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur Involving halogens… The position of halogens in the periodic table tells you how reactive they are
  • 17. REACTIVENESS Single Displacement Reaction Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will occur Cl2(g) + 2KBr(aq)  2KCl(aq) + Br2(l) Involving halogens…
  • 18. Double Displacement Reaction AD + BC  AC + BD + B CB +A CAA DA B DB
  • 19. Double Displacement Reaction + B CB +A CAA DA B DB A reaction where elements in different compounds exchange places, producing two new compounds
  • 20. Double Displacement Reaction Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
  • 21. Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? A reaction will occur only if the following will be produced 1)Gas 2)Solid precipitate 3)Water Solubility table
  • 22. Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? YES
  • 23. Double Displacement Reaction If one of the products is H2CO3(aq) or NH4OH(aq), then you will get a gas! How will you know if the product is a gas? CO2 is a gas, but not every gas is that simple to recognize H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) NH4OH(aq)  NH3(g) + H2O(l)
  • 24. Double Displacement Reaction For example: Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) The equation may be re-written as… Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  • 25. Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive Double Displacement Reaction Neutralization reaction: Special type of double displacement reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride)
  • 26. Neutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) Double Displacement Reaction
  • 27. Combustion Reaction fuel O2+ A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, producing energy in the form of heat and/or light H2O + CO2
  • 28. Combustion Reaction fuel O2+ H2O + CO2
  • 29. Combustion Reaction Element + O2  “oxide” + energy 2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
  • 30. Combustion Reaction 1st Type: COMPLETE COMBUSTION Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + energy When burning a fuel, there are two types of combustion to consider:
  • 31. Combustion Reaction 2nd Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energy Ex. C4H10(g) + 5O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) + CO(g) + C(s) + energy POISONOUS!!! BLACK!!!
  • 32. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction K + Cl2  ? 1) Are the reactants in their pure elemental form (i.e. O2, Mg, Cl2)? If yes, then this reaction is a SYNTHESIS REACTION 2K + Cl2  2KCl So there should only be ONE product, and it should contain both reactants
  • 33. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H2O  ? 2) Is there only ONE reactant? If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTION So there should be two products, each being a separate element (i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O  2H2 + O2
  • 34. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H2O2  ? 2) Is there only ONE reactant? If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTION So there should be two products, each being a separate element (i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
  • 35. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction Zn + SnCl2  ? 3) If there are 2 reactants, is one of them a pure metal on its own? If yes, then this reaction is a SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION So the metal that is on its own must take the place of the other metal that is in the larger compound Zn + SnCl2  ZnCl2 + Sn
  • 36. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction NaCl + AgNO3  ? 4) Are both of the reactants compounds? If yes, then this reaction is a DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION So the two metals must switch places with one another, forming two new compounds NaCl + AgNO3  NaNO3 + AgCl
  • 37. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction C8H18 + O2  ? 5) Is one of the reactants oxygen gas? If yes, then this reaction is a COMBUSTION REACTION (as well as a SYNTHESIS REACTION) So the products must be an oxide and energy. If one of the reactants is a hydrocarbon, then CO2 + H2O are the products. 2C8H18 + 25O2  16CO2 + 18H2O + energy