Types of Chemical Reactions
Synthesis Reaction
A B+ A BA
A + B  AB
Synthesis Reaction
A B+ A BA
A reaction where two
reactants combine to
make a larger, more
complex product
Synthesis Reaction
HCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
Decomposition Reaction
A B+A BA
AB  A + B
A reaction where a more
complex molecule breaks
down to form two or more
simpler products
Decomposition Reaction
A B+A BA
2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energy
Decomposition Reaction
Timothy McVeigh bombing, 1995
Regular building demol...
2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
Decomposition Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
A + BC  AC + B
A + B CB + BA CA
Single Displacement Reaction
A + B CB + BA CA
A reaction where an element
displaces another element in a
compound, produci...
Single Displacement Reaction
Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
Single Displacement Reaction
2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
Single Displacement Reaction
Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
Will this reaction occur?
The second reaction does...
The activity
series
(also on page
130, Table 4.2)
The “Who’s Hot
and Who’s Not
Analogy”
Single Displacement Reaction
Single Displacement Reaction
MgSO4 + Zn  ?
Will this reaction occur?
This reaction will
not occur
REACTIVENESS
Single Displacement Reaction
I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ?
Will this reaction occur?
This reaction will not occur
In...
REACTIVENESS
Single Displacement Reaction
Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ?
Will this reaction occur?
This reaction will occur
Cl2(g) +...
Double Displacement Reaction
AD + BC  AC + BD
+ B CB +A CAA DA B DB
Double Displacement Reaction
+ B CB +A CAA DA B DB
A reaction where elements in
different compounds exchange
places, produ...
Double Displacement Reaction
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
Double Displacement Reaction
3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq)
Will this reaction occur?
A reaction will...
Double Displacement Reaction
3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq)
Will this reaction occur? YES
Double Displacement Reaction
If one of the products is H2CO3(aq) or NH4OH(aq),
then you will get a gas!
How will you know ...
Double Displacement Reaction
For example:
Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
The equation may be re-written as…...
Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive
Double Displacement Reaction
Neutralization reaction: Special type o...
Neutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize
stomach acid
2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq)
H2CO3(aq) ...
Combustion Reaction
fuel O2+
A reaction of a fuel with oxygen,
producing energy in the form of
heat and/or light
H2O
+ CO2
Combustion Reaction
fuel O2+
H2O
+ CO2
Combustion Reaction
Element + O2  “oxide” + energy
2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
Combustion Reaction
1st
Type: COMPLETE COMBUSTION
Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy
Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(...
Combustion Reaction
2nd
Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION
Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carb...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
K + Cl2  ?
1) Are the reactants in their pure elemental form (i.e. O2, Mg...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
H2O  ?
2) Is there only ONE reactant?
If yes, then this reaction is a DEC...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
H2O2  ?
2) Is there only ONE reactant?
If yes, then this reaction is a DE...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
Zn + SnCl2  ?
3) If there are 2 reactants, is one of them a pure metal on...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
NaCl + AgNO3  ?
4) Are both of the reactants compounds?
If yes, then this...
Predicting the Products for a
Chemical Reaction
C8H18 + O2  ?
5) Is one of the reactants oxygen gas?
If yes, then this re...
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04 types of chemical reactions

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04 types of chemical reactions

  1. 1. Types of Chemical Reactions
  2. 2. Synthesis Reaction A B+ A BA A + B  AB
  3. 3. Synthesis Reaction A B+ A BA A reaction where two reactants combine to make a larger, more complex product
  4. 4. Synthesis Reaction HCl(g) + NH3(g)  NH4Cl(s)
  5. 5. Decomposition Reaction A B+A BA AB  A + B
  6. 6. A reaction where a more complex molecule breaks down to form two or more simpler products Decomposition Reaction A B+A BA
  7. 7. 2NH4NO3(s)  4H2O(g) + 2N2(g) + O2(g) + energy Decomposition Reaction Timothy McVeigh bombing, 1995 Regular building demolition with ammonium nitrate explosives
  8. 8. 2KClO3(s) + energy  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g) Decomposition Reaction
  9. 9. Single Displacement Reaction A + BC  AC + B A + B CB + BA CA
  10. 10. Single Displacement Reaction A + B CB + BA CA A reaction where an element displaces another element in a compound, producing a new compound and a new element
  11. 11. Single Displacement Reaction Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)
  12. 12. Single Displacement Reaction 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l)  2NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
  13. 13. Single Displacement Reaction Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)  Hg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Will this reaction occur? The second reaction does not occur. How will you know if a single displacement reaction will occur or not? H2(g) + ZnCl2(aq)  2HCl(aq) + Zn(s) What about this reaction?
  14. 14. The activity series (also on page 130, Table 4.2) The “Who’s Hot and Who’s Not Analogy” Single Displacement Reaction
  15. 15. Single Displacement Reaction MgSO4 + Zn  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur
  16. 16. REACTIVENESS Single Displacement Reaction I2(aq) + CaBr2(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will not occur Involving halogens… The position of halogens in the periodic table tells you how reactive they are
  17. 17. REACTIVENESS Single Displacement Reaction Cl2(g) + KBr(aq)  ? Will this reaction occur? This reaction will occur Cl2(g) + 2KBr(aq)  2KCl(aq) + Br2(l) Involving halogens…
  18. 18. Double Displacement Reaction AD + BC  AC + BD + B CB +A CAA DA B DB
  19. 19. Double Displacement Reaction + B CB +A CAA DA B DB A reaction where elements in different compounds exchange places, producing two new compounds
  20. 20. Double Displacement Reaction Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)
  21. 21. Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? A reaction will occur only if the following will be produced 1)Gas 2)Solid precipitate 3)Water Solubility table
  22. 22. Double Displacement Reaction 3CoCl2(aq) + 2Na3PO4(aq)  Co3(PO4)2(s) + 6NaCl(aq) Will this reaction occur? YES
  23. 23. Double Displacement Reaction If one of the products is H2CO3(aq) or NH4OH(aq), then you will get a gas! How will you know if the product is a gas? CO2 is a gas, but not every gas is that simple to recognize H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) NH4OH(aq)  NH3(g) + H2O(l)
  24. 24. Double Displacement Reaction For example: Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) The equation may be re-written as… Na2CO3(aq) + 2HCl(aq)  2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g)
  25. 25. Corrosive + corrosive  non-corrosive + non-corrosive Double Displacement Reaction Neutralization reaction: Special type of double displacement reaction HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide  water + salt (sodium chloride)
  26. 26. Neutralization Reaction Example: Antacids neutralize stomach acid 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(aq)  CaCl2(aq) + H2CO3(aq) H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l) + CO2(g) Double Displacement Reaction
  27. 27. Combustion Reaction fuel O2+ A reaction of a fuel with oxygen, producing energy in the form of heat and/or light H2O + CO2
  28. 28. Combustion Reaction fuel O2+ H2O + CO2
  29. 29. Combustion Reaction Element + O2  “oxide” + energy 2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s) + energy P4(s) + 5O2(g)  P4O10(g) + energy
  30. 30. Combustion Reaction 1st Type: COMPLETE COMBUSTION Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy Ex. CH4(g) + 2O2(g)  CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + energy When burning a fuel, there are two types of combustion to consider:
  31. 31. Combustion Reaction 2nd Type: INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION Hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energy Ex. C4H10(g) + 5O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) + CO(g) + C(s) + energy POISONOUS!!! BLACK!!!
  32. 32. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction K + Cl2  ? 1) Are the reactants in their pure elemental form (i.e. O2, Mg, Cl2)? If yes, then this reaction is a SYNTHESIS REACTION 2K + Cl2  2KCl So there should only be ONE product, and it should contain both reactants
  33. 33. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H2O  ? 2) Is there only ONE reactant? If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTION So there should be two products, each being a separate element (i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O  2H2 + O2
  34. 34. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction H2O2  ? 2) Is there only ONE reactant? If yes, then this reaction is a DECOMPOSITION REACTION So there should be two products, each being a separate element (i.e. Na, Ca, O2, I2, Br2) although that is not always the case 2H2O2  2H2O + O2
  35. 35. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction Zn + SnCl2  ? 3) If there are 2 reactants, is one of them a pure metal on its own? If yes, then this reaction is a SINGLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION So the metal that is on its own must take the place of the other metal that is in the larger compound Zn + SnCl2  ZnCl2 + Sn
  36. 36. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction NaCl + AgNO3  ? 4) Are both of the reactants compounds? If yes, then this reaction is a DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT REACTION So the two metals must switch places with one another, forming two new compounds NaCl + AgNO3  NaNO3 + AgCl
  37. 37. Predicting the Products for a Chemical Reaction C8H18 + O2  ? 5) Is one of the reactants oxygen gas? If yes, then this reaction is a COMBUSTION REACTION (as well as a SYNTHESIS REACTION) So the products must be an oxide and energy. If one of the reactants is a hydrocarbon, then CO2 + H2O are the products. 2C8H18 + 25O2  16CO2 + 18H2O + energy

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