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Cells
cell structure
Common Cell Traits
Cell membrane
•outer covering of cell
•made of one or more layers of
linked molecules
Cytoplasm
•inside...
comparing cells
nerve cells can be 1m long
human egg cell is no bigger than the dot on this i
human red blood cells is 1/1...
cell types
PROKARYOTIC
CELLS
no membrane bound
structures
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
membrane-bound
structures
Cell Organization
cell wall
found in plants, algae, fungi, most bacteria
tough, rigid outer coverings that
protect the cell and give it shap...
cell membrane
protective layer around all cells
if a cell has a cell
wall, then the cell
membrane is
inside of it
what doe...
cytoplasm
gelatinlike substance
that fills cells which is
constantly moving
contains a
framework called
the cytoskeleton -...
organelles
contained within the cytoplasm
What do organelles do?
★process energy
★manufacture substances needed by the cel...
nucleus
is surrounded by a membrane
directs all cell activities
DELI MANAGER
materials enter andleave through the
membrane...
energy-processing organelles
cells need energy to:
✤process food
✤make new substances
✤eliminate wastes
✤communicate with ...
PLANTS
๏food is made in green
organelles called
chloroplasts
๏contain green pigment
chlorophyll
๏chlorophyll captures ligh...
ANIMALS
๏energy in food is stored until
it is released by the
mitochondria
๏organelles where energy is
released from the b...
manufacturing organelles
proteins take part in nearly every cell activity
Proteins:
•part of cell membrane
•needed for che...
ribosomesconsidered an organelle,
but they do not have a
membrane
some float freely in cytoplasm,
some attach to the endop...
processing, transporting, and
storing organelles
endoplasmic reticulum
(ER) extends from the
nucleus to the cell
membrane
...
golgi bodies proteins
are made
and sent to
the Golgi
bodies
Golgi bodies sort proteins and other
cellular substances and p...
recycling organelles
active cells break
down and recycle
substances
lysosomes contain
digestive chemicals
that help break ...
organ system
tissue
cell
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
2.1 Cells
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2.1 Cells

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Transcript of "2.1 Cells"

  1. 1. Cells cell structure
  2. 2. Common Cell Traits Cell membrane •outer covering of cell •made of one or more layers of linked molecules Cytoplasm •inside every cell •gelatin-like •contains hereditary material that controls the life of the cell
  3. 3. comparing cells nerve cells can be 1m long human egg cell is no bigger than the dot on this i human red blood cells is 1/10 the size of a human egg cell bacterium are even smaller - 8000 can fit inside a human egg cell
  4. 4. cell types PROKARYOTIC CELLS no membrane bound structures EUKARYOTIC CELLS membrane-bound structures
  5. 5. Cell Organization
  6. 6. cell wall found in plants, algae, fungi, most bacteria tough, rigid outer coverings that protect the cell and give it shapeplant cell walls are mainly made of cellulose....which is? what makes the cell walls rigid? Pectin and lignin!
  7. 7. cell membrane protective layer around all cells if a cell has a cell wall, then the cell membrane is inside of it what does it do? regulate interactions between the cell and the environment water can move into and out of cell through the cell membrane food particles and some molecules enter and waste products leave through the cell membrane
  8. 8. cytoplasm gelatinlike substance that fills cells which is constantly moving contains a framework called the cytoskeleton - this helps maintain or change the shape of the cell cytoskeleton helps some cells move cytoskeleton is made up of thin, hollow tubes of protein and thin, solid protein fibers
  9. 9. organelles contained within the cytoplasm What do organelles do? ★process energy ★manufacture substances needed by the cell ★move materials ★act as storage sites ★are surrounded by membranes ★nucleus is usually the largest organelle
  10. 10. nucleus is surrounded by a membrane directs all cell activities DELI MANAGER materials enter andleave through the membrane contains instructions for everything in the cell, which are found on DNA a nucleolus is also within the nucleus
  11. 11. energy-processing organelles cells need energy to: ✤process food ✤make new substances ✤eliminate wastes ✤communicate with each other
  12. 12. PLANTS ๏food is made in green organelles called chloroplasts ๏contain green pigment chlorophyll ๏chlorophyll captures light energy that is used to make glucose
  13. 13. ANIMALS ๏energy in food is stored until it is released by the mitochondria ๏organelles where energy is released from the breakdown of food into carbon dioxide and water ๏muscle cells are more active, so they contain more mitochondria
  14. 14. manufacturing organelles proteins take part in nearly every cell activity Proteins: •part of cell membrane •needed for chemical reactions that take place in the cytoplasm •are produced on small structures called ribosomes
  15. 15. ribosomesconsidered an organelle, but they do not have a membrane some float freely in cytoplasm, some attach to the endoplasmicreticulum made in the nucleolus receive directions from DNA on how, when, and in what order to make specific proteins
  16. 16. processing, transporting, and storing organelles endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane a series of folded membranes materials can be processed and moved around inside of the cell rough vs. smooth smooth ER process other cellular substances such as lipids that store energy Rough ER make proteins that are moved out of the cell or used within the cell
  17. 17. golgi bodies proteins are made and sent to the Golgi bodies Golgi bodies sort proteins and other cellular substances and package them into membrane-bound structures called vesicles vesicles deliver cellular substances to areas inside the cell Refrigerator - cells have membrane-bound spaces called vacuoles for temporary storage of materials (water, waste products, food, and other cellular materials)
  18. 18. recycling organelles active cells break down and recycle substances lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out parts lysosome membrane keeps the chemicals from leaking into the cell when a cell dies a lysosome’s membrane disintegrates, releasing digestive chemicals that quickly breakdown the cell’s contents
  19. 19. organ system tissue cell
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