Excretory system


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Excretory system

  1. 1. ExcretorySystem
  2. 2. TheExcretorySystem
  3. 3. TheExcretorySystem • Your body does not use all the food that you take in. • The unused food parts are waste products. • These wastes are processed by the excretory system. • The excretory system collects and eliminates wastes from the body and regulates the level of fluid in the body.
  4. 4. FunctionsoftheExcretorySystem • The digestive system collects waste products in the intestines. • The circulatory system collects waste products in the blood. Collection and Elimination
  5. 5. FunctionsoftheExcretorySystem • When the trash cans in your home are full of waste, you must take the trash outside. The waste in your body also must be removed. • Waste that is not removed, or eliminated, from your body can become toxic, or poisonous, and damage your organs. Collection and Elimination
  6. 6. FunctionsoftheExcretorySystem • The excretory system also regulates the level of fluids in the body. • Recall that water is an essential nutrient for your body. Some of the water in your body is lost when waste is eliminated. Regulation of LIquids
  7. 7. FunctionsoftheExcretorySystem • The excretory system controls how much water leaves the body through elimination. This ensures that neither too much nor too little water is lost. Regulation of LIquids
  8. 8. TypesofExcretion • Your body excretes, or eliminates, different substances from different body systems. • The excretory system is made of four body systems.
  9. 9. TypesofExcretion Digestive System collects and removes undigested solids from the foods you eat Urinary System processes, transports, collects, & removes liquid wastes from body Respriatory System removes carbon dioxide & water vapor from the body secretes excess salt and water from the body through sweat glands Integementary System
  10. 10. TypesofExcretion
  11. 11. OrgansofExcretorySystem • The urinary system processes, stores, and removes liquid wastes from the body. It helps maintain homeostasis.
  12. 12. OrgansofExcretorySystem The organs of the urinary system include: two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra.
  13. 13. OrgansofExcretorySystem • These organs work together to process, transport, collect, and excrete liquid wastes. • Most functions of the urinary system occur in the kidneys.
  14. 14. Kidneys • The bean-shaped organ that filters, or removes, wastes from blood is the kidney. • You have two kidneys, one on each side of your body. • They are near the back wall of your abdomen, above your waist, and below your rib cage.
  15. 15. Kidneys
  16. 16. • Each kidney is about the size of your fist. • Kidneys are dark red in color because of the large amount of blood that passes through them. Kidneys
  17. 17. • The kidneys have several functions. • Here we focus on the role of the kidneys in the urinary system. But the kidneys have other important functions. • They produce hormones that stimulate the production of red blood cells. • They also control blood pressure and help control calcium levels in the body. Kidney Function Kidneys
  18. 18. Kidneys • The kidneys contain blood vessels and nephrons. • Nephrons are networks of capillaries and small tubes, or tubules, where filtration of blood occurs. • Each kidney contains about one million nephrons. Nephrons
  19. 19. Kidneys Nephrons
  20. 20. • Blood contains waste products, salts, and sometimes toxins from cells that need to be removed from the body. • As blood passes through the kidneys, they filter these products from the blood. • When blood is filtered, a fluid called urine is produced. • The kidneys filter the blood and produce urine in two stages. Urine Kidneys
  21. 21. • Blood is constantly circulating and filtering through the kidneys. • In one day, the kidneys filter about 180 L of blood plasma, or the liquid part of blood. That is enough liquid to fill ninety 2-L bottles. • You have about 3 L of blood plasma in your body. This means that your kidneys filter your entire blood supply about 60 times each day. First Filtration Kidneys
  22. 22. • The first filtration occurs in the nephrons. • There, groups of capillaries filter water, sugar, salts, and wastes out of the blood. First Filtration Kidneys
  23. 23. Kidneys
  24. 24. Kidneys
  25. 25. • What would happen if all of the liquid from the first filtration were excreted? • Your body would quickly dehydrate, and important nutrients would be lost. • To regain some of this water, the kidneys filter the liquid collected in the first filtration again. Second Filtration Kidneys
  26. 26. Second Filtration Kidneys • The second filtration occurs in small tubes in the nephrons.
  27. 27. • During the second filtration, up to 99 percent of the water and nutrients from the first filtration are separated out and reabsorbed into the blood. • The remaining liquid and waste products form urine. • On average, an adult excretes about 1.5 L of urine per day. Second Filtration Kidneys
  28. 28. Kidneys
  29. 29. Kidneys
  30. 30. • Urine leaves each kidney through a tube called the ureter. • Each of your kidneys has a ureter. • Both ureters drain into your bladder. TheUreters,BladderandUrethra
  31. 31. • The bladder is a muscular sac that holds urine until the urine is excreted. • Your bladder expands and contracts like a balloon when it fills or empties. TheUreters,BladderandUrethra
  32. 32. • An adult bladder can hold about 0.5 L of urine. TheUreters,BladderandUrethra
  33. 33. • Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra. • The urethra contains circular muscles called sphincters that control the release of urine. TheUreters,BladderandUrethra
  34. 34. • The nephrons are damaged and the ability of the kidneys to filter blood is reduced. • In the beginning stages, there might not be symptoms. • Possible causes: diabetes, high blood pressure, poisons, trauma UrinaryDisorders Kidney Disease
  35. 35. • Infections usually occur in the bladder or urethra but can be in the kidneys and ureters. • Symptoms might include burning during urination, small and frequent urination, and blood in urine. • Possible causes: bacteria in the urinary system UrinaryDisorders Urinary Tract InFection
  36. 36. • Kidney stones are solid substances that form in the kidneys. • The most common type is made of calcium. • Stones that pass through the urinary system can be very painful. • Possible causes: calcium buildup in the kidneys UrinaryDisorders Kidney Stones
  37. 37. • Urine is released from the bladder involuntarily. • These problems occur in women more often than in men. • Possible causes: urinary tract infections, muscle weakness, prostate enlargement UrinaryDisorders Bladder Control Problems
  38. 38. • The excretory system filters wastes from the blood. • The blood is part of the circulatory system. A buildup of wastes in the circulatory system would be toxic to your body. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis
  39. 39. • Homeostasis is also maintained by the removal of wastes from the digestive system. • Wastes would damage your body if the excretory system did not remove them from the digestive system. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis
  40. 40. • The excretory system also interacts with the nervous system. • The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that helps to maintain homeostasis. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis
  41. 41. • One function of the hypothalamus is to control the secretion of some hormones. • One hormone causes the tubules of the kidneys to absorb more water from the blood. • This helps the body control fluid levels. Water is kept in the blood instead of being excreted in the urine. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis
  42. 42. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis HypothalamusHormone
  43. 43. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis Hypothalamus How much fluid is in this body?
  44. 44. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis Hypothalamus Too Much!! Hormone
  45. 45. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis Hypothalamus Too Much!! Hormone • When there is too much fluid in the body, the hypothalamus send out less hormone which tells the kidneys to… • Return less water to blood • Increase the amount of urine
  46. 46. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis Hypothalamus Not enough!! Hormone
  47. 47. TheExcretorySystemandHomeostasis Hypothalamus Too Much!! Hormone • When there is not enough fluid in the body, the hypothalamus send out more hormone which tells the kidneys to… • Return more water to your blood (which decreases the amount of urine) Not enough!!