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Ingles celula animal


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Describe a las organelas de la celula animal y sus funciones, esta en el idioma ingles, espero sea de su gran aguda

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Ingles celula animal

  1. 1. Animal Cell Structure and Function Names: Rodriguez Yaritza Level: XIIº H González José Luis
  2. 2. Cell Theory • All living things are made up of cells. • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things. • All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.
  3. 3. Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  4. 4. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Bacteria Nerve Cell Red Blood Cell
  5. 5. Human Muscle Cells
  6. 6. Two Types of Animal Cells •Prokaryotic •Eukaryotic
  7. 7. Prokaryotic • Do not have structures surrounded by membranes • Few internal structures • One-celled organisms, Bacteria
  8. 8. Prokaryotic Cells • Prokaryotic cells include the bacteria and archaea. • Bacterial cells have these constant features: • Outer Boundary: Cell wall • Plasma membrane • Cytoplasm: Ribosomes • Thylakoids (Cyanobacteria) • Innumerable enzymes • Nucleoid: Chromosome (DNA only) 3-8
  9. 9. 3-9 • Bacterial cells may have plasmids, small accessory rings of DNA. • Some bacteria have a capsule or a slime layer. • Most bacteria have flagella. • Some also have fimbriae that help cells attach to surfaces. • Bacteria have a great metabolic diversity.
  10. 10. Eukaryotic • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes • Most living organisms Animal
  11. 11. Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell • According to the endosymbiotic hypothesis, eukaryotes arose from a symbiotic relationship between various prokaryotes. - Heterotrophic bacteria became mitochondria. - Cyanobacteria became chloroplasts. - Host cell was a large eukaryotic cell. 3-11
  12. 12. Animal cell anatomy 3-12
  13. 13. Cell Parts Organelles
  14. 14. Surrounding the Cell
  15. 15. Cell Membrane • Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell • Double layer
  16. 16. Inside the Cell
  17. 17. Nucleus • Repository for genetic material • Directs activities of the cell • Usually single, some cells several, RBC none • Nucleolus - region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis • Surface of nucleus bound by two phospholipid bilayer membranes • nuclear membrane • Nuclear pores – protein gatekeepers • Usually proteins going in and RNA going out
  18. 18. Nucleus
  19. 19. Nuclear Membrane • Surrounds nucleus • Made of two layers • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus
  20. 20. Chromosomes • In nucleus • Made of DNA • Contain instructions for traits & characteristics • DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear chromosomes. • exist as strands of chromatin, except during cell division • associated with packaging histones, packaging proteins • nucleosomes
  21. 21. Nucleolus • Inside nucleus • Contains RNA to build proteins
  22. 22. Cytoplasm • Gel-like mixture • Surrounded by cell membrane • Contains hereditary material
  23. 23. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Moves materials around in cell • Smooth type: lacks ribosomes • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface
  24. 24. Endoplasmic reticulum • Largest internal membrane • Composed of Lipid bilayer • Serves as system of channels from the nucleus • Functions in storage and secretion • Rough ER is “rough” because of associated ribosomes (sites of protein synthesis • Smooth ER - lack associated ribosomes – contained embedded enzymes, catalyze synthesis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules
  25. 25. Ribosomes • Each cell contains thousands • Make proteins • Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell
  26. 26. Golgi Bodies • Protein 'packaging plant' • Move materials within the cell • Move materials out of the cell
  27. 27. Mitochondria • Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates • Controls level of water and other materials in cell • Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
  28. 28. Mitochondria are needed for aerobic respiration which produces energy. The more active a cell, the more mitochondria are present.
  29. 29. Lysosome • Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
  30. 30. Vacuoles • Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal • Contains water solution • Help plants maintain shape