Anatomy and Physiology Cell organelles


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Anatomy and Physiology Cell Structure

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  • Use this presentation in conjunction with the Cell Organelle note-taking worksheet. Run through the entire presentation before using it in class so that you know what’s coming next! It helps to print the outline and notes to have with you while presenting so that there are no surprises. –
  • You may or may not wish to distinguish between cytosol and cytoplasm. The correct use of each term is shown here. Most high school textbooks, however, use the word “cytoplasm” to mean “cytosol.”
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • Cells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
  • Actin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
  • It’s not necessary that the students can read the labels here; just point out the black dots are ribosomes.
  • A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids. In this diagram, you can see the ribosome is making a polypeptide, also known as a protein.
  • AKA Golgi Complex. It is not necessary that the students read the labels, this diagram gives them a general idea of the Golgi’s shape.
  • Students should recognize the shapes of the Golgi and ER even if they cannot read the captions.
  • Explain that this diagram shows the mitochondria cut open to reveal the internal membranes.
  • Chloroplasts absorb light, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.
  • This is an actual microscopic image. Explain that the colors are added digitally to enhance the different parts.
  • The image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
  • Microtubules are also part of the cytoskeleton.
  • You may choose to delete the answers from the PowerPoint or change the animation so that they come in after all 5 questions are asked in case you want to quiz students individually at the end.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Cell organelles

    1. 1. Cells Mr. HunterKennedy H.S.
    2. 2. Mr. Hunter Biology 11/15/2012• Objective(s)• SWBAT• Describe the function of the plasma membrane• Describe function and location of various organelles• Answer vocab / review questions• Bell Ringer: What are the two components of the phospholipids of the cell membrane?
    3. 3. The Discovery of The Cell• All living things are made up of one or more cells.• A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all the processes of life.
    4. 4. Microscopes Reveal Cell StructureLooking at cells Most cells are too small to see with the naked eye. Scientists became aware of cells only after microscopes were invented in the 1600s. A. Robert Hooke used a crude microscope to observe a thin slice of cork in 1665. He saw many small boxes which reminded him of the small rooms in which monks lived, so he called them cells. He observed plant cells. B. 10 years later a scientist, Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to view pond water. He observed many small living creatures. He named them animalcules (tiny animals). They were singled-cell organisms.
    5. 5. A. In 1838, the German botanist MattiasThe Cell – Theory and Schleiden concluded that cellsFeatures compose every part of the plant. B. A year later, the German zoologist Theodore Schwann claimed that animals are also made of cells. C. In 1858, Rudoloph Virchow, a German physician, determined that cells come from other cells. D. The works of these three scientist form the Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. 3. All cells arise from existing cells.
    6. 6. The Cellular Basis of Life• All living things share several basic characteristics:• Organized parts• Obtain energy• Perform chemical reactions• Change with time• Respond to environment• Reproduce• Maintain homeostasis• Share a Common History
    7. 7. Cell Diversity• Cells are very different in terms of their shapes and functions.• A cell’s function can influence its physical features
    8. 8. Cell Size Surface Area• Cells differ in shape and size. Surface Area• Some cells may be seen by the naked eye, such as a giraffe’s nerve cell ( 6 & ½ ft long) or a human egg cell (the size of a period at the end of sentence in your text book)• A cell’s size is limited to its outer surface area to inner volume ratio.• Nutrients, Oxygen and Waste produced must pass through the cell at its surface. Volume Volume
    9. 9. Two Basic Types of Cells• Prokaryotes • Eukaryotes• Single Cell • Made of one or more cells• Lack membrane bound • Nucleus and membrane nucleus – control center bound organelles present of the cell / contains DNA • Larger than prokaryotic• Lack membrane bound cells organelles – specialized • More complex structure bodies with specific jobs• DNA is found in nucleoid region
    10. 10. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
    11. 11. Cellular Organization• Over time, cells began to form groups that function together.Colonial organism:• Collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a connected group.• Few activities are coordinated.
    12. 12. Plasma Membrane• The plasma membrane (cell membrane) has several functions.• Selective access• Separation of internal and external environments• Means of waste removal• Environmental interactions• Fluid Mosaic Model – The membrane behaves more like a liquid than a solid.• It is a pattern (mosaic) of lipids and proteins.
    13. 13. Cell Organelles• Organelle= “little organ”• Found only inside eukaryotic cells• Organelles are structures that have specific jobs within cells• All the stuff in between the organelles is cytosol• Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm
    14. 14. Cell Membrane• Boundary of the cell• Made of a phospholipid bilayer
    15. 15. Nucleus• Control center of the cell• Contains DNA• Surrounded by a double membrane• Usually the easiest organelle to see under a microscope• Usually one per cell
    16. 16. Cytoskeleton• Acts as skeleton and muscle• Provides shape and structure• Helps move organelles around the cell• Made of three types of filaments
    17. 17. Endoplasmic Reticulum• A.k.a. “ER”• Connected to nuclear membrane• Highway of the cell• Rough ER: studded with ribosomes; it makes proteins• Smooth ER: no ribosomes; it makes lipids
    18. 18. Ribosome• Site of protein synthesis• Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytosol• Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus That looks familiar…what is a polypeptide?
    19. 19. Golgi Apparatus• Looks like a stack of plates• Stores, modifies and packages proteins• Molecules transported to and from the Golgi by means of vesicles
    20. 20. Lysosomes• Garbage disposal of the cell• Contain digestive enzymes that break down wastes Which organelles do lysosomes work with?
    21. 21. Mitochondria• “Powerhouse of the cell”• Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy for the cell to use• Bound by a double membrane• Has its own strand of DNA
    22. 22. Chloroplast• Found only in plant cells• Contains the green pigment chlorophyll• Site of food (glucose) production• Bound by a double membrane
    23. 23. Cell Wall• Found in plant and bacterial cells• Rigid, protective barrier• Located outside of the cell membrane• Made of cellulose (fiber)
    24. 24. Vacuoles• Large central vacuole usually in plant cells• Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells• Storage container for water, food, enzymes, wastes, pigments, etc. What type of microscope may have been used to take this picture?
    25. 25. Centriole• Aids in cell division• Usually found only in animal cells• Made of microtubules Where else have we talked about microtubules?
    26. 26. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells
    27. 27. Quick Review• Which organelle is the control center of the cell?• Which organelle holds the cell together?• Which organelles are not found in animal cells?• Which organelle helps plant cells make food?• What does E.R. stand for?