Eukaryotic Cells


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Eukaryotic Cells

  1. 1. EUKARYOTIC CELLS Cell Wall
  2. 2. Cell Wall <ul><li>A cell wall is a rigid structure that gives support to a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and algae have cell walls made of complex sugar called cellulose. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi including yeasts and mushrooms. Also have cell walls. Fungi have cell walls made of a complex sugar called chitin. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic cells such as bacteria and archaea have cell walls, but are different from plants. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cell Wall
  4. 4. Cell Membrane <ul><li>All cells have cell membrane. The cell membrane is a protective barrier that encloses a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell membrane contains proteins, lipids and phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids (fats and cholesterol), do not dissolve in water. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell Membrane <ul><li>The cell membrane has two layers of phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid is a lipid that contains phosphorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the proteins and lipids control the movement of materials into and out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients and water move into the cell, and wastes move out of the cell, through these protein passageways. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cell Membrane
  7. 7. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>The cytoskeleton is a web of proteins in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as both a muscle and a skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>It keeps the cell´s membranes from collapsing, also helps some cells move. </li></ul><ul><li>Is made of three types of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>One protein is a hollow tube, the other two are long, stringy fibers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cytoskeleton
  9. 9. Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is a large organelle in a eukaryotic cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains cell´s DNA, or genetic material. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA contains the information how to make a cell’s proteins. Proteins control the chemical reactions in a cell, also support for cells and tissues. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nucleus <ul><li>The nucleus is covered by two membranes . </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleus of many cells has a dark area called the nucleolus. </li></ul><ul><li>The nucleolus is where a cell begins to make its ribosomes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nucleus
  12. 12. Ribosomes <ul><li>Organelles that make proteins are ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are the smallest of all organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are not covered by a membrane. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ribosomes
  14. 14. Ribosomes <ul><li>Proteins are made of AMINO ACIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>An AMINO ACID is any one of about 20 different organic molecules that are used to make proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells need proteins to live. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells have RIBOSOMES. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>The ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, or ER, is a system of folded membranes in which proteins, lipids, and other materials are made. </li></ul><ul><li>Its folded membrane contains many tubes and passageways. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum is either rough ER or smooth ER. </li></ul><ul><li>The part of the ER covered in ribosomes is rough ER, it is usually found near the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes on rough ER make many of the cell’s proteins. The ER delivers these proteins throughout the cell. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>ER that lacks ribosomes is smooth ER. </li></ul><ul><li>The functions of smooth ER include making lipids and breaking down toxic materials that could damage the cell. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  19. 19. Mitochondria <ul><li>Is the main power source of a cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the organelle in which sugar is broken down to produce energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria is covered by two membranes (outer membrane, inner membrane). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mitochondria
  21. 21. Mitochondria <ul><li>Energy released by mitochondria is stored in a substance called ATP </li></ul><ul><li>(adenosine triphosphate). </li></ul><ul><li>Most eukaryotic cells have mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria are the size of some bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria have their own DNA, and can divide within a cell. </li></ul>