Cells and Organelles

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Cells and Organelles

  1. 1. CellsAnd Organells Bradley Bright, Lydia McLin, and Cassie LeSueur
  2. 2. • The cell is the basic unit of life. Plant cells (unlike animal cells) are surrounded by a thick, rigid cell wall.• The following is a glossary of plant cell anatomy terms. amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch.• ATP - ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by organisms. In plant cells, ATP is produced in the cristae of mitochondria andchloroplasts.• cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.• cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant.• centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.
  3. 3. • chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process is called photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is magnesium based and is usually green.• chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (in which energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy - food) takes place in the chloroplasts.• christae - (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner membrane of a cells mitochondrion that are finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cells energy production (it is where ATP is generated).• cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.• Golgi body - (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane- bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
  4. 4. • mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.• nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.• nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.• nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane• photosynthesis - a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water. Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process.
  5. 5. • ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.• rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).• smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body and membranes.• Large central vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. Most plant cells have a single vacuole that takes up much of the cell. It helps maintain the shape of the cell.
  6. 6. • The following is a glossary of animal cell terms:• cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.• centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.• cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.• Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.• lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.• mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell.
  7. 7. • nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.• nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus.• nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.• ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
  8. 8. • rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane).• smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cells cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes.• vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.
  9. 9. Organelle Function The “brains” of the cell, the nucleus directs cell activities and contains geneticNucleus material called chromosomes made of DNA.Mitochondria Make energy out of foodRibosomes Make proteinGolgi Body Make, process and package proteins Contains digestive enzymes to help breakLysosome food down Called the "intracellular highway" becauseEndoplasmic Reticulum it is for transporting all sorts of items around the cell. Used for storage, vacuoles usually containVacuole water or food. (Are you are thirsty? Perhaps your vacuoles need some water!)Plant cells also have: Use sunlight to create food byChloroplasts photosynthesis Cell Wall For supportPlant And Animal Cells Are Eukaryotic
  10. 10. Examples of ProkaryoticProkaryotic Cells CellsCells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are calledprokaryotes (from the Greek meaning before nuclei). Thesecells have few internal structures that are distinguishableunder a microscope. Cells in the monera kingdom such asbacteria and cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae)are prokaryotes.Prokaryotic cells differ significantly from eukaryotic cells. Theydont have a membrane-bound nucleus and instead of havingchromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circularloop called a plasmid. Bacterial cells are very small, roughlythe size of an animal mitochondrion (about 1-2µm indiameter and 10 µm long). Prokaryotic cells feature threemajor shapes: rod shaped, spherical, and spiral. Instead ofgoing through elaborate replication processes likeeukaryotes, bacterial cells divide by binary fission.Diagram of a prokaryotic cell. Notice the internal organellesare not easily distinguishable.Bacteria perform many important functions on earth. Theyserve as decomposers, agents of fermentation, and play animportant role in our own digestive system. Also, bacteria areinvolved in many nutrient cycles such as the nitrogen cycle,which restores nitrate into the soil for plants. Unlikeeukaryotic cells that depend on oxygen for their metabolism,prokaryotic cells enjoy a diverse array of metabolic functions.For example, some bacteria use sulfur instead of oxygen intheir metabolism.
  11. 11. Questions Before Slide Show• Question: Dose anyone know any cells?• Answer: Animal, Plant, Eukaryotic, Prokaryotic• Question:________________________________________ __________________________• Answer:_________________________________________ ___________________________• Question:________________________________________ __________________________• Answer:_________________________________________ ________________________________
  12. 12. Cell Rap• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- zafJKbMPA8&feature=related

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