The environment and change over time


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The environment and change over time

  1. 1. the environment and change over time
  2. 2. who was the main person to put evolution on the table? charles darwin What book did Darwin write explaining his theory of evolution? On The Origin of Species
  3. 3. darwin’s travels england HMS Beagle
  4. 4. darwin’s theory Darwin thought the varieties of plants and animals could be best explained by descent from a common ancestor. He used the plants and animals of the Galapagos Islands as an example.
  5. 5. Darwin studied 13 species of finches. They were all similar, except for their: body size beak shape eating habits darwin’s theory
  6. 6. • Darwin saw that the giant tortoises on each island looked different. • On one island, tortoises had shells that came close to their necks. They could eat only short plants. • On other islands, tortoises had more space between the shell and neck. They could eat taller plants. darwin’s theory
  7. 7. • Tortoises with long necks lived on islands that had tall cacti. Their long necks made it possible for them to reach high to eat the cacti. • The tortoises with short necks lived on islands that had plenty of short grass. darwin’s theory
  8. 8. darwin’s theory
  9. 9. • He suggested that millions of years before, a storm had carried a group of tortoises to one of the islands from South America. • In time, the tortoises spread to the other islands. Their neck lengths and shell shapes changed to match their islands’ food sources. • Darwin became convinced that all the tortoise species were related. He thought they all shared a common ancestor. darwin’s theory
  10. 10. A variation is an inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of its species. Variations result from mutations. Some gene changes produce small variations, such as differences in the shape of human hairlines. Mutations can lead to changes in phenotype. Genetic changes to phenotype can be passed on to future generations. variations
  11. 11. variations
  12. 12. variations
  13. 13. The mechanism Darwin thought that was responsible for evolution was Natural Selection. He argued that it had the power to make new forms of life. Darwin’s idea became known as the “Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection”. Natural Selection means that organisms with traits best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. darwin’s theory: evolution through natural selection
  14. 14. natural selection
  15. 15. principles of natural selection
  16. 16. principles of natural selection
  17. 17. principles of natural selection
  18. 18. principles of natural selection
  19. 19. The buildup of many similar variations can lead to an adaptation. adaptation An adaptation is a characteristic of a species that enables the species to survive in its environment. The long neck of certain species of tortoises is an adaptation to an environment with tall cacti.
  20. 20. adaptation
  21. 21. Structural Adaptations These adaptations involve color, shape, and other physical characteristics. The shape of a tortoise’s neck is a structural adaptation. types of adaptations
  22. 22. Behavioral Adaptations The way an organism behaves or acts is a behavioral adaptation. Hunting at night and moving in herds are behavioral adaptations. types of adaptations
  23. 23. Functional Adaptations These adaptations involve chemical changes in body systems. A drop in body temperature during hibernation is a functional adaptation. types of adaptations
  24. 24. Many species have adaptations that make them nearly invisible. For example, a seahorse may be the same color as and similar in texture to the coral it rests on. This is a structural adaptation called camouflage. Camouflage is an adaptation that enables species to blend in with their environments. environmental interactions
  25. 25. Some species have adaptations that draw attention to them or make them more visible. A caterpillar may resemble a snake. Predators see it and are scared away. The resemblance of one species to another species is mimicry. Camouflage and mimicry are adaptations that help species avoid being eaten. Many other adaptations help species eat. environmental interactions