1 cell fernando


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3 ESO- Biology bilingual education.
IES Pedro de Luna.

Types of cells: Eukaryotic and Procaryotic. Animal and Plant cells.
The organelles ofthe cell and their functions.


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1 cell fernando

  1. 1. THE CELL The Cell Theory. Types of cells. Parts of a cell. Fernando Gómez A cell by * quick2004
  2. 2. All things on earth can be classified into 2 groups. Can you group these items into these 2 main groups? LIVING or NON LIVING Record your answers in your journal.
  3. 3. All things on earth are either living or non-living .
  4. 4. All living things are made of one basic unit. Can you name it?
  5. 5. In your journal, write a paragraph about how living things are different from non-living things. Be sure to include information about the basic unit of life.
  6. 6. The Vital Functions : When speaking about the difference between living and non-living things we have to appeal to the vital functions , that is: Nutrition Interaction and Reproduction.
  7. 7. Cells are the basic unit of life . This is a single cell of a living thing.
  8. 8. Definition of Cell A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  9. 9. Cells <ul><li>Cells are the basic units of all living things… </li></ul><ul><li>if it is alive it has cells </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cells pictures
  11. 11. Cell size
  12. 12. Hooke´s microscope
  13. 15. CELL THEORY <ul><li>A theory resulting from many scientists’ observations & conclusions </li></ul>Slide from: http://www.worldofteaching.com                                                                                                                                  Schwann Schleiden Virchow
  14. 16. CELL THEORY 1. The basic unit of life is the cell . ( Hooke ) <ul><li>In 1665, an English scientist named Robert Hooke made an improved microscope and viewed thin slices of cork viewing plant cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Hooke named what he saw &quot;cells&quot; </li></ul>Slide from: http://www.worldofteaching.com
  15. 17. CELL THEORY 2. All living things are made of 1 or more cells . <ul><li>Matthias Schleiden (botanist studying plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Schwann (zoologist studying animals) stated that all living things were made of cells </li></ul>Schleiden Schwann Slide from: http://www.worldofteaching.com
  16. 18. CELL THEORY 3. All cells divide & come from old cells . ( Virchow ) Virchow
  17. 19. <ul><li>Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes CELLS </li></ul>Cell membrane Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Organelles Cytoplasm Eukaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell = with nucleus Prokaryotic cell = without nucleus Prokaryotic cell
  18. 20. What are the main parts of a cell? <ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul>
  19. 21. Plant Cell Section 7-2 artists rendition of the plant cell Nuclear envelope Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Cell wall Cell Membrane Chloroplast Vacuole
  20. 22. artists rendition of an animal cell Animal cell
  21. 25. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  22. 26. Two Types of Cells <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><li>Without nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>With nucleus </li></ul>
  23. 27. Prokaryotic <ul><li>Do not have structures surrounded by membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Few internal structures </li></ul><ul><li>One-celled organisms, Bacteria </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  24. 28. Eukaryotic <ul><li>Contain organelles surrounded by membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Most living organisms </li></ul>Plant Animal http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  25. 29. “ Typical” Animal Cell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  26. 30. “ Typical” Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
  27. 31. A section through a liver cell (animal cell)- Guess the function of… <ul><li>Slide taken from clickbiology.com </li></ul>controls what enters and leaves the cell metabolic (chemical) reactions occur here contains the DNA and so controls the cell contains the coded instructions to make proteins cell membrane cytoplasm nucleus DNA
  28. 32. Section through a palisade cell of a leaf (plant cell). <ul><li>Slide taken from clickbiology.com </li></ul>cell membrane nucleus cytoplasm chloroplast large sap vacuole cellulose cell wall
  29. 33. Comparing animal and plant cells Slide taken from clickbiology.com Found in both animal and plant cells Found only in plant cells cell membrane cellulose cell wall nucleus large sap vacuole cytoplasm chloroplast
  30. 34. Cell Parts Organelles
  31. 35. Surrounding the Cell
  32. 36. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Double layer </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  33. 37. Cell Wall <ul><li>Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>It is made of cellulose. </li></ul><ul><li>It supports & protects cells </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  34. 38. Inside the Cell
  35. 39. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Collective term for cytosol and organelles </li></ul>
  36. 40. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>- Composed of microtubules - Supports cell and provides shape - Aids movement of materials in and out of cells </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  37. 41. Nucleus <ul><li>Directs cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material - DNA </li></ul>
  38. 42. Nuclear Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of two layers </li></ul><ul><li>Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  39. 43. Chromosomes <ul><li>In nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contain instructions for traits & characteristics </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  40. 44. Nucleolus <ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Contains RNA to build proteins </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  41. 45. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Gel-like mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains hereditary material </li></ul>
  42. 46. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Moves materials around in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth type: lacks ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  43. 47. Ribosomes <ul><li>Each cell contains thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  44. 48. Mitochondria <ul><li>Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Controls level of water and other materials in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  45. 49. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Protein 'packaging plant' </li></ul><ul><li>Move materials within the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Move materials out of the cell </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  46. 50. Lysosome <ul><li>Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal </li></ul><ul><li>Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  47. 51. Vacuoles <ul><li>Membrane-bound sacs for storage , digestion, and waste removal </li></ul><ul><li>Contains water solution </li></ul><ul><li>Help plants maintain shape </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  48. 52. Chloroplast <ul><li>Usually found in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contains green chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Where photosynthesis takes place </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  49. 53. Centrioles <ul><li>Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division . </li></ul>