The Cell


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The Cell

  1. 1. the cell
  2. 2. comparing cells nerve cells can be 1m long human egg cell is no bigger than the dot on this i (but in 12 pt font) human red blood cells is 1/10 the size of a human egg cell bacterium are even smaller - 8000 can fit inside a human egg cell
  3. 3. common cell rraits Cell membrane •outer covering of cell •made of one or more layers of linked molecules Cytoplasm •inside every cell •gelatin-like •contains hereditary material that controls the life of the cell
  4. 4. cell wall found in plants, algae, fungi, most bacteria tough, rigid outer coverings that protect the cell and give it shape What makes the cell walls rigid? Pectin and lignin! Plant cell walls are mainly made of cellulose....which is? .... a polymer of glucose chains
  5. 5. cell membrane protective layer around all cells what does it do? regulate interactions between the cell and the environment water can move into and out of cell through the cell membrane if a cell has a cell wall, then the cell membrane is inside of it food particles and some molecules enter and waste products leave through the cell membrane
  6. 6. cytoplasm gelatin-like substance that fills cells which is constantly moving cytoskeleton helps some cells move contains a framework called the cytoskeleton this helps maintain or change the shape of the cell cytoskeleton is made up of thin, hollow tubes of protein and thin, solid protein fibers
  7. 7. flagella long and taillike whip back and forth to move the cell
  8. 8. cilia move a cell or move short, hairlike structures molecules away from a cell
  9. 9. cell types PROKARYOTIC CELLS no membrane bound structures EUKARYOTIC CELLS membrane-bound structures
  10. 10. nucleus largest organelle contains instructions for everything in the cell, which are found on DNA contains a nucleolus which makes ribosomes DNA is in structures called chromosomes The number of chromosomes in a nucleus is different for different species of organisms. Two membranes form the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus. It also has many holes that allow molecules to pass through
  11. 11. nucleus
  12. 12. ribosomes considered an organelle, but they do not have a membrane made in the nucleus produce proteins, which take part in nearly every cell activity, are part of cell membrane and needed for chemical reactions receive directions from DNA on how, when, and in what order to make specific proteins some float freely in cytoplasm, some attach to the endoplasmic reticulum
  13. 13. endoplasmic reticulum endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane materials can be processed and moved around inside of the cell Rough ER make proteins that are moved out of the cell or used within the cell. Rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surface. a series of folded membranes rough vs. smooth Smooth ER make lipids that store energy and also remove harmful substances from the cell
  14. 14. mitochondria The mitochondrion are organelles where energy is released from the breakdown of food into CO2 and H2O. Most eukaryotic cells contain 100’s of mitochondria. Some cells in a human heart can contain 1,000 mitochondria. A mitochondrion is surrounded by two membranes. Chemical reactions within mitochondria release energy. This energy is stored in highenergy molecules called ATP— adenosine triphosphate. The energy in ATP molecules is used by the cell for growth, cell division, and transporting materials.
  15. 15. mitochondria
  16. 16. chloroplasts food is made in green organelles called chloroplasts contain green pigment chlorophyll chlorophyll captures light energy that is used to make glucose
  17. 17. golgi bodies Golgi bodies sort proteins and other cellular substances and package them into membranebound structures called vesicles. Cells have membrane-bound spaces called vacuoles for temporary storage of materials (water, waste products, food, and other cellular materials). Proteins are made and sent to the Golgi bodies. They travel in ... vesicles. Vesicles deliver cellular substances to areas inside the cell.
  18. 18. recycling organelles active cells break down and recycle substances lysosome membrane keeps the chemicals from leaking into the cell lysosomes contain digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out parts when a cell dies a lysosome’s membrane disintegrates, releasing digestive chemicals that quickly breakdown the cell’s contents