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Chp 2-1
The Discovery of Cells
• Why weren’t cells discovered until the
1600’s?
• Describe the contribution of
– Robert Ho...
Cell Theory
• Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow’s
discoveries led to the formation of the
CELL THEORY:
1. All living things ...
All Cells have:
1. A cell membrane
(a.k.a. “plasma membrane”
2. Ribosomes
3. Genes (DNA)
4. Cytoplasm
- cytoplasm is every...
4
Number of Cells
Organisms may be:
• Unicellular –
composed of one cell
• Multicellular-
composed of many
specialized cel...
5
Types of CellsTypes of Cells
Prokaryotes - Bacteria
Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and
protists.
Eukaryotic CellPr...
6
Prokaryotes
Nucleoid region
contains the DNA
The DNA is circular
No membrane-bound
organelles
Very small: 1-15 μm
in dia...
m?μ
7
The symbol “μ” (mu) stands for micron, or
one-millionth of a meter.
A human hair can
vary from 20-180 μm
Those 
Are...
8
Eukaryotic Cell
Range from 2-1000 μm
Contain membrane-bound
organelles
Why do you think eukaryotic
cells can be so much ...
Why are cells so small?
9
Materials must be exchanged
across the cell membrane and then
distributed throughout the cell.
A...
10
Basic Structure of a Cell
Is this a prokaryote or a eukaryote?
11
Outermost part of
animal cells
Found just inside the
cell wall of plant,
fungi, and bacteria
cells
Cell membrane
Surrou...
12
Controls the
movement of
materials into and
out of the cell
“Selectively
permeable”
Cell membrane
13
Jelly-like substance
enclosed by cell
membrane
Cytosol provides a
medium for
chemical reactions
to take place
Cytoplasm...
14
OrganellesOrganelles
Have specific functions
ex: mitochondria release
stored energy in food
ribosomes make proteins
“me...
Eukaryotic Cells
Are not all the same!
Plant cells have a cell wall made of
cellulose
Fungi have cell walls made of chitin...
16
There are differentThere are different
kinds of plant cellskinds of plant cells
Onion Epidermal Cells
Root Hair Cell
ro...
17
There are different kindsThere are different kinds
of “animal” cellsof “animal” cells
white blood cell
red blood cell
c...
18
Similarities between plantSimilarities between plant
cells and animal cellscells and animal cells
Both have a cell memb...
19
Differences between plantDifferences between plant
cells and animal cellscells and animal cells
Animal cells Plant cell...
20
Animal cells Plant cells
Vacuoles small or
absent
Glycogen as food
storage
Nucleus at the
center
Large central
vacuole
...
21
Levels of organizationLevels of organization
• Cells are
grouped
together and
work as a
whole to
perform special
functi...
22
TissueTissue
• A group of similar cells to
perform a particular function
– Animals : epithelial tissue,
muscular tissue...
23
OrganOrgan
• Different tissues group together
to carry out specialized functions
– Heart : consists of muscles,
nervous...
24
Stoma
Air Space
Spongy Mesophyll
Cell
Chloroplast
The Structures of a Leaf
(Plant Organ)
Palisade
Mesophyll Cell
25
SystemSystem
• Several organs and tissues work together
to carry out a particular set of
functions in a co-ordinated wa...
26
Human Body SystemsHuman Body Systems
Examples of systems :
 Digestive System
 Respiratory System
 Circulatory System...
27
Example of a Human Body System
28
Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization
CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells)
TISSUES (muscle, epithelium)
ORGANS (h...
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Cell structure

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Cell Structure PowerPoint

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Cell structure

  1. 1. Chp 2-1 The Discovery of Cells • Why weren’t cells discovered until the 1600’s? • Describe the contribution of – Robert Hooke – Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Matthias Schleiden – Theodor Schwann – Rudolph Virchow For each, include what year their discovery was made 1
  2. 2. Cell Theory • Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow’s discoveries led to the formation of the CELL THEORY: 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells. 2. In organisms, cells are the basic units of structure and function. 3. Cells are produced only from existing cells. 2
  3. 3. All Cells have: 1. A cell membrane (a.k.a. “plasma membrane” 2. Ribosomes 3. Genes (DNA) 4. Cytoplasm - cytoplasm is everything inside a cell - cytosol is cytoplasm that isn’t inside an organelle. 3
  4. 4. 4 Number of Cells Organisms may be: • Unicellular – composed of one cell • Multicellular- composed of many specialized cells • Colonial – groups of cells that lack specialization
  5. 5. 5 Types of CellsTypes of Cells Prokaryotes - Bacteria Eukaryotes – Animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Eukaryotic CellProkaryotic Cell
  6. 6. 6 Prokaryotes Nucleoid region contains the DNA The DNA is circular No membrane-bound organelles Very small: 1-15 μm in diameter
  7. 7. m?μ 7 The symbol “μ” (mu) stands for micron, or one-millionth of a meter. A human hair can vary from 20-180 μm Those  Are bacteria on a pin!
  8. 8. 8 Eukaryotic Cell Range from 2-1000 μm Contain membrane-bound organelles Why do you think eukaryotic cells can be so much larger than prokaryotic cells?
  9. 9. Why are cells so small? 9 Materials must be exchanged across the cell membrane and then distributed throughout the cell. An efficient cell has a large surface area to volume ratio. The larger the cell, the smaller the ratio (inverse relationship) Size  Ratio  Why are some cells bigger than others? How do they get around this ratio thing?
  10. 10. 10 Basic Structure of a Cell Is this a prokaryote or a eukaryote?
  11. 11. 11 Outermost part of animal cells Found just inside the cell wall of plant, fungi, and bacteria cells Cell membrane Surrounding all Cells:Surrounding all Cells:
  12. 12. 12 Controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell “Selectively permeable” Cell membrane
  13. 13. 13 Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane Cytosol provides a medium for chemical reactions to take place Cytoplasm Cytoplasm of a CellCytoplasm of a Cell
  14. 14. 14 OrganellesOrganelles Have specific functions ex: mitochondria release stored energy in food ribosomes make proteins “membrane-bound” organelles are surrounded by membranes
  15. 15. Eukaryotic Cells Are not all the same! Plant cells have a cell wall made of cellulose Fungi have cell walls made of chitin Animal cells don’t even have a cell wall 15
  16. 16. 16 There are differentThere are different kinds of plant cellskinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  17. 17. 17 There are different kindsThere are different kinds of “animal” cellsof “animal” cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  18. 18. 18 Similarities between plantSimilarities between plant cells and animal cellscells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA Both share many organelles, including mitochondria
  19. 19. 19 Differences between plantDifferences between plant cells and animal cellscells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size No chloroplasts No cell wall Relatively larger in size Chloroplasts Cell wall present
  20. 20. 20 Animal cells Plant cells Vacuoles small or absent Glycogen as food storage Nucleus at the center Large central vacuole Starch as food storage Nucleus near cell wall More Differences betweenMore Differences between Plant Cells and Animal CellsPlant Cells and Animal Cells
  21. 21. 21 Levels of organizationLevels of organization • Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions
  22. 22. 22 TissueTissue • A group of similar cells to perform a particular function – Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue, nervous tissue, and connective tissue
  23. 23. 23 OrganOrgan • Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions – Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels – Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue
  24. 24. 24 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) Palisade Mesophyll Cell
  25. 25. 25 SystemSystem • Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way – Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory and reproductive systems – Plant : root and shoot systems
  26. 26. 26 Human Body SystemsHuman Body Systems Examples of systems :  Digestive System  Respiratory System  Circulatory System  Nervous System  Reproductive System
  27. 27. 27 Example of a Human Body System
  28. 28. 28 Levels of OrganizationLevels of Organization CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells) TISSUES (muscle, epithelium) ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach) SYSTEMS (circulatory system) ORGANISM (human)

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